Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System

Baseline Monitoring Report (Version 1)

December 2015

Airport Authority Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HKIA Tower, 1 Sky Plaza Road, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20151214 IEC Verification Letter Baseline Monitoring Report

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

 

Chapter   Title                                                                                              

1.1_______ Background

1.2_______ Project Description

1.3_______ Purpose of this Report

1.4_______ Pre-construction Egretry Survey

1.5_______ Structure of the Report

2.1_______ Monitoring Requirements

2.2_______ Monitoring Equipment

2.3_______ Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

2.4_______ Monitoring Locations

2.5_______ Monitoring Methodology

2.6_______ Weather Condition

2.7_______ Results and Observations

2.8_______ Action and Limit Levels

2.9_______ Event and Action Plan

3.1_______ Monitoring Requirements

3.2_______ Monitoring Equipment

3.3_______ Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

3.4_______ Monitoring Stations

3.5_______ Monitoring Methodology

3.6_______ Results and Observations

3.7_______ Action and Limit Levels

3.8_______ Event and Action Plan

4.1_______ Introduction

4.2_______ Monitoring requirements

4.3_______ Baseline Monitoring Methodology

4.4_______ Monitoring Results

4.5_______ Conclusion

 

Tables

Table I:           Action and Limit Levels for 1-hour TSP

Table 2.1:__ Air Quality Monitoring Equipment

Table 2.2:__ Air Quality Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

Table 2.3:__ Summary of Average Baseline Air Quality Monitoring Results

Table 2.4:__ Summary of Average Baseline Air Quality Monitoring Results

Table 2.5:__ Action and Limit Levels for 1-hour TSP

Table 3.1:__ Noise Monitoring Equipment

Table 3.2:__ Noise Monitoring Parameters, Period and Frequency

Table 3.3:__ Baseline Noise Monitoring Period

Table 3.4:__ Locations of Noise Monitoring Stations

Table 3.5:__ Summary of Baseline Daytime Noise Monitoring Results

Table 3.6:__ Action and Limit Levels for Construction Noise

 

 

Figures     

Figure 2.1      Air Quality Monitoring Locations (Construction)

Figure 3.1      Noise Monitoring Stations (Construction)

Figure 5.1      Location of Landscape and Visual Baseline Monitoring

Figure 5.2      Location of Vegetation Types on Sheung Sha Chau Island

Figure 5.3      Location of Vegetation Types on Airport Island

Figure 5.4      Location of Viewpoints

Figure 5.5      Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 1 – view from Castle Peak

Figure 5.6      Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 2 – view from Miami Beach Towers

Figure 5.7      Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 3 – view from Marriott Hotel

Figure 5.8      Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 4 – view from Caribbean Coast

Figure 5.9      Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 5 – view from Ngong Ping 360

Figure 5.10    Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 6 – view from Lantau hiking trail

Figure 5.11    Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 7 – view from Golden Beach

Figure 5.12    Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 8 – view from St. Stephen’s Tai O Family Buildings

Figure 5.13    Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 9 – view from potential recreational users of future Tung Chung East development

Figure 5.14    Updated baseline view of Viewpoint 10 – view from Fu Shan in Tai O

 

 

 

Appendices

Appendix 1.1 The Construction Programme of horizontal directional drilling (HDD)

Appendix 2.1 Calibration Certificates

Appendix 2.2 Baseline Air Quality Monitoring Results

Appendix 2.3 Wind data from Hong Kong Observatory Weather Station (Chek Lap Kok Station)

Appendix 3.1 Baseline Noise Monitoring Results

Appendix 5.1 Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Area Maps in the Approved EIA Report

Appendix 5.2 Representative Photographs of Vegetation Types

Appendix 5.3 Photographs showing the Landscape Character of the Site Area

 

 

 

 


Executive Summary

 

 

 

An Environmental Permit (Permit No.: EP-489/2014) for the construction and operation of the “Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System” (the project) was granted by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) on 7 November 2014.

Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited (MMHK) was commissioned by the Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) to undertake the role of Environmental Team (ET) for carrying out the environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) works of the project.

This Baseline Monitoring Report is submitted to fulfil Condition 3.4 of the Environmental Permit No. EP-489/2014 issued pertaining to this designated project.  Given that all marine-based construction works will only commence after the completion of the gazettal process required under the Foreshore and Sea-bed (Reclamations) Ordinance, this Report only presents the baseline monitoring results for the environmental aspects that are relevant to the land-based construction works.  These include the baseline monitoring results on air quality, noise and the landscape and visual aspects.  The baseline monitoring work covering Chinese White Dolphin, water quality and the coral aspects will be reported in a separate Baseline Monitoring Report before the commencement of any marine works.

Baseline Air Quality Monitoring

Baseline 1-hour TSP monitoring was conducted for 14 consecutive days between 6 November 2015 and 27 November 2015 at two air quality monitoring stations. The Action Levels for 1-hr TSP during impact monitoring are established based on the measured baseline TSP levels for assessing the impact and compliance during the construction of the Project. The summary table of action and limit levels of 1-hour TSP at AR1A and AR2 are presented in Table I.

Table I:           Action and Limit Levels for 1-hour TSP

Monitoring Station

Action Level (mg/m3)

Limit Level(mg/m3)

AR1A- Man Tung Road Park(1)

306

500

AR2- Village House at Tin Sum

298

Note: (1) alternative air quality monitoring location

Baseline Noise Monitoring

The monitoring was carried out for a period of two weeks between 6 November 2015 and 27 November 2015 at six noise monitoring stations. The dominant sources of background noise were aircraft noise at NM2*, NM3A, NM5 and NM6, road traffic noise at NM1A, and student activities at NM4. Action and Limit Levels for construction noise shall follow the levels as defined in the updated EM&A Manual.

Baseline Landscape and Visual

The landscape and visual baseline monitoring were conducted on 28 August 2015, 13 October 2015 and 19 November 2015 with reference to the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Area maps in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014). It is concluded that the landscape and visual baseline condition within the Project site boundary is very similar to that identified in the EIA stage. The landscape and visual impact assessment in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is still valid.

 


1                 Introduction

 

 

 

1.1           Background

On 7 November 2014, the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Report (Register No.: AEIAR-185/2014) for the “Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System” (the project) was approved and an Environmental Permit (EP) (Permit No.: EP-489/2014) was issued for the construction and operation of the project.

Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited (MMHK) was commissioned by the Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) to serve as the project’s Environmental Team (ET) for carrying out the environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) works of the project.

1.2           Project Description

The project covers the expansion of the existing airport into a three-runway system (3RS) with key project components comprising land formation of about 650 ha and all associated facilities and infrastructure including taxiways, aprons, aircraft stands, a passenger concourse, an expanded Terminal 2, all related airside and landside works and associated ancillary and supporting facilities.  The existing submarine aviation fuel pipelines and submarine power cables also require diversion as part of the works.

Construction will proceed in the general order of diversion of the submarine aviation fuel pipelines, diversion of the submarine power cables, land formation, and construction of infrastructure, followed by construction of superstructures.

The land-based construction works of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) for diversion of the submarine aviation fuel pipelines are planned to commence on 28 December 2015 on the airport island. The construction programme of HDD is provided in Appendix 1.1.

All marine works, including the submarine power cable diversion and land formation, will commence only after completion of the gazettal process required under the Foreshore and Sea-bed (Reclamations) Ordinance (FSRO).

1.3           Purpose of this Report

This Baseline Monitoring Report is submitted to fulfil Condition 3.4 of the EP and the baseline monitoring has been undertaken based on the approach and methodology presented in the updated EM&A Manual.

Given that all marine-based construction works will only commence after the completion of the FSRO gazettal process, this Baseline Monitoring Report only presents the baseline monitoring results for the environmental aspects that are relevant to the land-based construction works.  These include the baseline monitoring results on air quality, noise obtained from two weeks of monitoring undertaken in November 2015, and also the results of landscape and visual baseline monitoring conducted on 28 August 2015, 13 October 2015 and 19 November 2015.  The baseline monitoring work covering Chinese White Dolphin, water quality and the coral aspects will be reported in a separate Baseline Monitoring Report before the commencement of any marine works. 

1.4           Pre-construction Egretry Survey

A pre-construction egretry survey has also been undertaken between April 2015 and July 2015 in accordance with the recommendation of the approved EIA Report and the updated EM&A Manual and findings will be presented in a separate Egretry Survey Plan to be submitted to EPD separately for approval in accordance with EP Condition 2.14.

1.5           Structure of the Report

The structure of the report is as follows:

·        Section 1 Introduction - presents the project background, purpose and structure of this baseline monitoring report;

·        Section 2 Air Quality - presents the monitoring requirements, methodology, and results on baseline air quality monitoring;

·        Section 3 Noise - presented the monitoring requirements, methodology and results on baseline noise monitoring;

·        Section 4 Landscape and Visual - presents the baseline monitoring methodology and results for the landscape and visual aspects.

 

2                 Air Quality

 

 

 

2.1           Monitoring Requirements

In accordance with the updated EM&A Manual, baseline 1-hour Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) levels at the air quality monitoring stations are to be established before commencement of construction works for the project. Baseline 1-hour TSP monitoring was conducted for 14 consecutive days at each of the air quality monitoring stations.

2.2           Monitoring Equipment

Portable direct reading dust meters were used to carry out the 1-hour TSP monitoring. Details of the brand and model of the equipment are given in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1:       Air Quality Monitoring Equipment

Equipment

Brand and Model

Quantity

Portable direct reading dust meter

Sibata Digital Dust Monitor (Model No. LD-3B)

2

The 1-hour TSP meters were calibrated at 1-year intervals against a Tisch Environmental Mass Flow Controlled Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) High Volume Air Sampler. Calibration certificates of the Laser Dust Monitors used in the baseline monitoring are provided in Appendix 2.1.

2.3           Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

Table 2.2 summarises the monitoring parameters, frequency and duration of the baseline TSP monitoring.

Table 2.2:       Air Quality Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

Monitoring Stations

Parameter

Frequency and Duration

Monitoring Period

AR1A - Man Tung Road Park(1)

1-hour TSP

3 times a day, for 14 consecutive days

14 November 2015 to

27 November 2015

AR2 - Village House at Tin Sum

6 November 2015 to

19 November 2015

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

2.4           Monitoring Locations

Two monitoring stations, AR1A - Man Tung Road Park and AR2 - Village House at Tin Sum have been proposed and described in the updated EM&A Manual.  Locations of the monitoring stations are shown in Figure 2.1As already explained in Section 2.1.5 of the updated EM&A Manual, AR1A is an alternative monitoring station agreed with EPD, the IEC and AAHK as access could not be obtained at the originally monitoring station AR1 proposed at Block 1 of Seaview Crescent.

2.5           Monitoring Methodology

2.5.1.1       Portable Direct Reading Dust Meter

Portable direct reading dust meter has been commonly used for measuring 1-hr TSP levels in a number of designated projects of major infrastructure works.  The instrument is capable to provide comparable monitoring results as that provided by a high volume sampler. A proposal of using portable direct reading dust meter in undertaking the EM&A for the 3RS project was submitted to and agreed by the IEC in accordance with the provision and requirements set out in Section 2.1.3.5 of the updated EM&A Manual.

The available calibration data as presented in Appendix 2.1 have shown that the portable direct reading dust meter is capable of providing comparable results with that provided by a High Volume Sampler (HVS), and with the benefits of allowing prompt and direct results for the EM&A works. The portable direct reading dust meters will be calibrated every year against HVS to check the validity and accuracy of the results measured by direct reading method. 

2.5.1.2       Measuring Procedures

The measuring procedures of the 1-hour dust meter were in accordance with the Manufacturer’s Instruction Manual and these are summarised below:

1.     Turn the power on.

2.     Close the air collecting opening cover.

3.     Push the “TIME SETTING” switch to [BG].

4.     Push “START/STOP” switch to perform background measurement for 6 seconds.

5.     Turn the knob at SENSI ADJ position to insert the light scattering plate.

6.     Leave the equipment for 1 minute upon “SPAN CHECK” is indicated in the display.

7.     Push “START/STOP” switch to perform automatic sensitivity adjustment. This measurement takes 1 minute.

8.     Pull out the knob and return it to MEASURE position.

9.     Push the “TIME SETTING” switch the time set in the display to 3 hours.

10.  Lower down the air collection opening cover.

11.  Push “START/STOP” switch to start measurement.

2.6           Weather Condition

There is an existing wind station (i.e., the Chek Lap Kok Wind Station) operating on the airport island.  The Chek Lap Kok Wind Station is located near the existing Northern Runway of Hong Kong International Airport. Data recorded at the Chek Lap Kok Wind Station is used for routine weather reporting in the existing airport operation and therefore is considered to be a very reliable source for the wind data.  It is considered that representative wind data obtained at the existing Chek Lap Kok Wind Station can be relied upon in undertaking the construction phase air quality monitoring programme for the 3RS project.

The proposed use of the existing wind data from Chek Lap Kok Wind Station operated by Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) for wind data collection instead of setting up wind sensor on mast near the monitoring stations was submitted and agreed by IEC, and AAHK’s approval was also obtained in accordance with the the provision and requirements set out in Section 2.1.3.7 of the updated EM&A Manual.

2.7           Results and Observations

The baseline air quality monitoring results are summarized in Table 2.3. Detailed 1-hour TSP monitoring results are presented in Appendix 2.2.

Table 2.3:       Summary of Average Baseline Air Quality Monitoring Results

Monitoring Station

Average 1-hour TSP Concentration (Range in brackets) (mg/m3)

AR1A- Man Tung Road Park(1)

87 (21- 326)

AR2- Village House at Tin Sum

74 (21- 242)

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

General meteorological conditions throughout the baseline monitoring period were recorded. Wind data for each day during the baseline monitoring period including wind speed and wind direction was collected from the Chek Lap Kok Wind Station.  The collected data are presented in Appendix 2.3.

As no project-related activities have commenced yet when the baseline air quality monitoring were carried out, the baseline air quality monitoring results obtained are considered representative of the ambient air quality conditions prior to the commencement of construction works for the project.

2.8           Action and Limit Levels

The 1-hour TSP monitoring results at the two monitoring locations were below the Limit Level set out in the updated EM&A Manual. The Action Levels and Limit levels for air quality impact monitoring have been set in accordance with the derivation criteria specified in the updated EM&A Manual. These are reproduced in Table 2.4.

Table 2.4:       Summary of Average Baseline Air Quality Monitoring Results

Monitoring Station

Average 1-hour TSP Concentration (Range in brackets) (mg/m3)

Limit Level

1-hour TSP

Level in mg/m3

·        For baseline level < 384 μg/m3, Action level = (Baseline level x 1.3 + Limit level)/2

·        For baseline level > 384 μg/m3, Action level = Limit level

500

 

Following the criteria shown in the above table, the Action Levels and Limit Levels for 1-hour TSP for the monitoring stations have been derived and these are presented in Table 2.5.


 

Table 2.5:       Action and Limit Levels for 1-hour TSP

Monitoring Station

Action Level (mg/m3)

Limit Level(mg/m3)

AR1A- Man Tung Road Park(1)

306

500

AR2- Village House at Tin Sum

298

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

2.9           Event and Action Plan

Should non-compliance of the air quality criteria occur, the Event and Action Plan as presented in Table 2-3 of the updated EM&A Manual should be followed.

 

3                 Noise Monitoring

 

 

 

3.1           Monitoring Requirements

In accordance with the updated EM&A Manual, baseline noise monitoring has been carried out prior to the commencement of construction works of the project. Continuous baseline noise monitoring for the A-weighted levels Leq, L10 and L90 were carried out daily for a period of two weeks at each of the noise monitoring stations.

3.2           Monitoring Equipment

Integrating Sound Level Meters were used in the baseline noise monitoring.  They were the Type 1 sound level meter capable of giving a continuous readout of the noise level readings including equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq) and percentile sound pressure level (Lx). They complied with International Electrotechnical Commission Publications 651:1979 (Type 1) and 804:1985 (Type 1). Table 3.1 summarizes the noise monitoring equipment model used in the noise monitoring.

Table 3.1:       Noise Monitoring Equipment

Monitoring Locations

Equipment Model

Integrating Sound Level Meter

Calibrator

NM1A - Man Tung Road Park(1)

B&K 2238 (Serial No.2808432)

B&K4231 (Serial No.3004068)

NM2* - Tung Chung Battery(1)

B&K 2250-L (Serial No.3004555)

NM3A - Site Office(1)

B&K 2238 (Serial No.2800932)

NM4 - Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

B&K 2238 (Serial No.2381580)

NM5 - Village House at Tin Sum

B&K 2238 (Serial No.2684503)

NM6 - House No.1, Sha Lo Wan

B&K 2250-L (Serial No.2675655)

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

3.3           Monitoring Parameters, Frequency and Duration

Table 3.2 summarizes the monitoring parameters, frequency and duration of the baseline noise monitoring. The baseline noise in A-weighted levels Leq, L10 and L90 were recorded in a 5-minute interval between 0700-1900 during the 14-day monitoring period at each of the noise monitoring stations and the Leq(30mins) noise levels were calculated accordingly for each 30-minute interval. The baseline noise monitoring period is set out in Table 3.3.

Table 3.2:       Noise Monitoring Parameters, Period and Frequency

 

 

Time Period

Parameters

Daytime on normal weekdays (0700-1900 hrs)

 

Leq(5 mins), L10(5 mins) and L90(5 mins)

 

Table 3.3:       Baseline Noise Monitoring Period

Monitoring Stations

Baseline Monitoring Period

NM1A - Man Tung Road Park(1)

13 November 2015 to 27 November 2015

NM2* - Tung Chung Battery(1)

12 November 2015 to 26 November 2015

NM3A - Site Office(1)

9 November 2015 to 23 November 2015

NM4 - Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

6 November 2015 to 20 November 2015

NM5 - Village House at Tin Sum

7 November 2015 to 21 November 2015

NM6 - House No.1, Sha Lo Wan

11 November 2015 to 25 November 2015

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

3.4           Monitoring Stations

Baseline noise monitoring has been undertaken at six monitoring stations as proposed in the updated EM&A Manual.  The locations of the monitoring stations are shown in Figure 3.1.  As already explained in Section 4.3.3 of the updated EMA Manual, NM1A, NM2*, NM3A are alternative monitoring stations agreed with EPD, the IEC and AAHK as access could not be obtained at the original monitoring stations NM1 proposed at Block 1 of Seaview Crescent, NM2 on reclaimed land and NM3 at Ho Yu College.

Table 3.4:       Locations of Noise Monitoring Stations

Monitoring Stations

Type of measurement

NM1A - Man Tung Road Park(1)

Free field

NM2* - Tung Chung Battery(1)

Free field

NM3A - Site Office(1)

Facade

NM4 - Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

Free field

NM5 - Village House at Tin Sum

Free field

NM6 - House No.1, Sha Lo Wan

Free field

Note: (1) alternative monitoring location

3.5           Monitoring Methodology

3.5.1            Monitoring Procedure

The baseline noise monitoring has been undertaken using the following procedure:  

a.          The sound level meter was set at least 1.2 m above the ground for free-field measurements at monitoring stations NM1A, NM2*, NM4, NM5 and NM6. A correction of +3 dB(A) has been made for the free field measurements.

b.          Façade measurements were made at the monitoring station NM3A.

c.          The battery condition was checked to ensure the correct functioning of the meters.

d.          Parameters such as frequency weighting, the time weighting and the measurement time were set as follows:

i.               frequency weighting: A

ii.             time weighting: Fast

iii.            time measurement: 5-minutes for Leq, L10 and L90 during the non-restricted hours i.e. 0700 – 1900 hours on normal weekdays, with the calculation of the Leq(30mins.) noise levels for each 30-minute interval after the measurements.

e.          Prior to and after each noise measurement, the meter was calibrated using the acoustic calibrator for 94dB(A) at 1000 Hz.  If the difference in the calibration level before and after measurement was more than 1 dB(A), the measurement would be considered invalid and repeat of noise measurement would be required after re-calibration or repair of the equipment.

f.           During the monitoring period, the Leq, L10 and L90 were recorded.  In addition, site conditions and noise sources were recorded on a standard record sheet.

g.          The wind shield was used during the monitoring.

h.          Noise measurement was paused during periods of high intrusive noise (e.g. dog barking, helicopter noise) if possible. Observations were recorded when intrusive noise was unavoidable.

i.            The supplementary information of L10 and L90 were obtained for reference.

3.5.2            Maintenance and Calibration

The maintenance and calibration procedures are summarised below:

a.          The microphone head of the sound level meter was cleaned with soft cloth at regular intervals.

b.          The meter and calibrator were sent to the supplier or HOKLAS laboratory to check and calibrate at yearly intervals.

c.          Calibration certificates of the sound level meters and acoustic calibrators are provided in Appendix 2.1.

3.6           Results and Observations

In accordance with Section 4.3.3.3 of the updated EM&A Manual, a correction of +3 dB(A) was made to the free field measurements. The noise monitoring results are summarized in Table 3.5. Detailed noise monitoring results are presented in Appendix 3.1.

Table 3.5:       Summary of Baseline Daytime Noise Monitoring Results

Time Period and Monitoring Locations

 

 

Normal weekdays, 0700 - 1900 hrs

Mean of Leq (30 mins), dB(A)

Range of Leq (30 mins), dB(A)

NM1A

73

72 – 76

NM2*

59

53 – 66

NM3A

63

54 – 66

NM4

66

61 – 75

NM5

59

50 – 75

NM6

68

51 – 77

The weather condition during the monitoring period was mainly sunny and cloudy. The dominant sources of background noise were observed to be aircraft noise at NM2*, NM3A, NM5 and NM6 and road traffic noise at NM1A, and student activities at NM4. As no project-related activities have commenced yet when the baseline noise monitoring were carried out, the baseline noise monitoring results obtained are considered representative of the baseline noise condition prior to the commencement of construction works for the project.


 

3.7           Action and Limit Levels

The Action Levels and Limit Levels for construction noise impact monitoring have been defined in accordance with the updated EM&A Manual and are tabulated in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6:       Action and Limit Levels for Construction Noise

Monitoring Stations

Time Period

Action Level

Limit Level, Leq(30mins) dB(A)

NM1A, NM2*, NM3, NM4, NM5 and NM6

0700-1900 hours on normal weekdays

When one documented

complaint is received from

any one of the sensitive

receivers

 

75 dB(A)(i)

Note: (i) reduce to 70dB(A) for school and 65dB(A) during school examination periods.

3.8           Event and Action Plan

Should non-compliance of criteria occur, the Event and Action Plan as presented in Table 4-3 of the updated EM&A Manual should be followed.


 

4                 Landscape and Visual

 

 

 

 

4.1           Introduction

This section presents the results of the landscape and visual baseline monitoring conducted prior to commencement of construction works of the project.

The landscape and visual baseline monitoring was conducted on 28 August 2015 at the potential site of daylighting point for the submarine aviation fuel pipeline on Sheung Sha Chau Island, and on 13 October and 19 November 2015 at the Airport Island. An area-based vegetation survey was undertaken to identify representative vegetation types and record the typical species composition. An assessment of landscape character was also undertaken. Any landscape resources and elements of particular concern encountered were noted.

Updated photographs showing the existing baseline condition from the 10 vantage points as presented in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) were taken on 14, 17, 19, 22 and 24 November 2015. Any significant differences between the existing baseline and the predicted baseline conditions as shown in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) have been highlighted.   

The landscape and visual baseline was determined with reference to the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Area maps included in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014). It is confirmed that the landscape and visual baseline condition is very similar to that in the EIA stage. The landscape and visual impact assessment in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is still valid. No additional landscape and visual mitigation measures other than those recommended in the EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is required.

4.2           Monitoring requirements

As specified in Section 12.2 of the updated EM&A Manual, “baseline monitoring for the landscape and visual resources shall comprise a one off survey to be conducted prior to commencement of any construction works.”

This section of Landscape and Visual Baseline Monitoring presents the results of the landscape and visual baseline monitoring conducted in accordance with the updated EM&A Manual.

4.3           Baseline Monitoring Methodology

4.3.1            Monitoring Location

As specified in Section 12.2 of the updated EM&A Manual, the landscape and visual baseline monitoring “includes a vegetation survey of the entire site area.” The site area covered in the vegetation survey is shown in Figure 5.1.

4.3.2            Review of Baseline in Approved EIA Report

The Landscape Resource (LR) and Landscape Character Area (LCA) maps of the entire site area in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) (i.e. Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.1 Rev. I, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.2 Rev. G, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.3 Rev. I, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.4 Rev. F, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-004 Rev. G, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-007 Rev. C and Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-008 Rev. B), which are shown in Appendix 5.1, were reviewed before the vegetation survey. Text description of the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Areas were also reviewed, so that any deviation from the landscape and visual baseline condition as described in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) observed during the vegetation survey could be noted and documented.

4.3.3            Vegetation Survey

A vegetation survey in accordance with Section 12.2 of the updated EM&A Manual was undertaken on 28 August 2015 at Sheung Sha Chau Island and on 13 October and 19 November 2015 at the Airport Island. The vegetation observed was broadly divided into representative vegetation types. Representative photographs were taken for each of the vegetation types. Typical species composition of each vegetation type was described by recording the dominant flora species observed during the survey. Any landscape resource and element of particular concern encountered during the survey were photographed and their locations recorded in a GPS device.

4.3.4            Landscape Character Assessment

Landscape character of the entire site area was described in terms of the existing topography, vegetation types, built form and land use. Assessment of the landscape character was based on the analysis of the sensitivity of the landscape character, which is evaluated by the quality, maturity, condition, value, importance and rarity of the existing landscape character, and its ability to accommodate change.

4.4           Monitoring Results

4.4.1            Review of Baseline in Approved EIA Report

4.4.1.1       Landscape Resources

Relevant description of the Landscape Resources of the entire site as identified in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) (Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.1 Rev. I, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.2 Rev. G, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.3 Rev. I, Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-003.4 Rev. F and Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-007 Rev. C in Appendix 5.1) is summarised below.

CLK/LR1 - Coastal Waters of North Lantau

The seawater body forms part of the coastal waters of North Lantau and is a valuable resource contributing to the unique waterfront setting of Tung Chung. These Coastal Waters surrounding Chek Lap Kok are an important recreational resource as they are frequented by commercial and pleasure craft marine traffic. Given the regional importance and physical characteristics of this landscape the sensitivity given is High.

CLK/LR2 – Grass / Turf Areas around Runways and Verges

These are the large, flat, low-lying grass areas which have been established around the primary airport infrastructure, runway network and roadside areas on Chek Lap Kok. A continuous band of grass approximately 100 m wide abuts the northern land formation edge and continues around a portion of both the eastern and western extents of the North Runway. Given the nature of the LR its subsequent high tolerance to change, the sensitivity given is Low.

CLK/LR3 – Landscaped Areas Around Existing Airport Buildings

These areas include the water features and soft landscape areas around the existing buildings on airport island. These areas are primarily situated along vehicle / pedestrian access ways, along private roads and around the perimeter of the buildings. Landscaped areas consist of amenity water features, ground covers, low shrub planting, small size semi mature trees and broad leaf vegetation. Species assessed include Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata', Ixora stricta, Callistemon viminalis, Cassia surattensis, Bauhinia spp., Roystonea regia, Casuarina equisetifolia, Calliandra haematocephala, Lagerstroemia indica, Lantana montevidensis, Agave americana, and Hibiscus spp. Much of the planting is relatively young and can be relatively easily replaced to a similar state; however semi-mature tree species do exist throughout the area. Given the quality of the LR, relative maturity of particular species and ability to accommodate some change, the sensitivity is considered Low.

CLK/LR4a - Roadside Vegetation – Amenity Planting

A planting theme has been implemented for amenity planting throughout the commercial areas andassociated airport facilities alongside major roads and access routes of Chek Lap Kok. Amenity areas consist of low hedges defining planting areas with large grassed areas, groundcovers, small shrubs, ornamental palms and small semi mature trees. Species identified include Ixora stricta, Albizia lebbeck, Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia confusa, Acacia mangium, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia odorifera, Grevillea robusta, Leucaena leucocephala, Delonix regia, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Litsea glutinosa, Macaranga tanarius, Melia azedarach, Phoenix roebelenii, Plumeria rubra, Roystonea regia, Calliandra haematocephala, Duranta repens 'Golden Leaves', Bougainvillea spp., Cycas revoluta, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Ravenala madagascariensis, Archontophoenix alexandrae, Acacia auriculiformis, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus microcarpa 'Golden Yellow', Ficus benjamina, Bauhinia spp., Cocos nucifera, and Nerium spp. Planting arrangements are featured on roundabouts, traffic islands, median strips and along pedestrian footways. Much of the planting is relatively young and can be relatively easily replaced to a similar state; however semi-mature tree species do exist throughout the area. Given the quality of the LR, relative maturity of particular species and ability to accommodate some change, the sensitivity is considered Medium.

CLK/LR4b - Roadside Vegetation on Modified Slopes

Vegetation is predominantly located on slopes at the Airport North Interchange. Both self-seeded and planted native and exotic woodland species such as Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pinus elliottii, Leucaena leucocephala, Thevetia peruviana, Bauhinia spp., Acacia confusa, Acacia mangium, Nerium spp., and Agave americana occupy the engineered slopes around the highway infrastructure. The sensitivity of this vegetation is considered Low as it is predominantly incidental, of common species and of low quality.

CLK/LR5 - Natural Coastline

The natural coastline features at a variety of locations on the south eastern point of Chek Lap Kok accommodating a varying degree of human disturbance. The Southern coastline of Scenic Hill adjoins the designated Green Belt under the current OZP (No. S/I-CLK/12). Due to the quality and natural status, its regional importance, and low tolerance to change, the sensitivity given is High.

CLK/LR6 – Amenity / Compensatory Planting on HKBCF/HKLR

Following the completion of HKLR and HKBCF programmed for 2016 (ref. Government Contract Nos. HY/2011/03 and HY/2011/09) this resource will comprise of amenity roadside planting and landscaped areas / environmental buffers including hydroseeding and peripheral planting. Given the recent instalment of the landscape treatment and relative ease of replacement there is a high ability for this landscape resource to accommodate change. Sensitivity: Low.

CLK/LR10b - Coastal Woodland and Scrubland on Scenic Hill

This is the various forms of vegetation that cover the slopes of Scenic Hill. This area is designated Green Belt under the current OZP (No. S/I-CLK/12). Dominant species comprise Mallotus paniculatus, Thevetia peruviana, Acacia confusa, Macaranga tanarius, Bauhinia spp., Celtis sinensis, Acacia mangium, Calliandra haematocephala, Dicranopteris linearis, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, and Pinus elliottii. Given the relatively natural landscape status, regional importance and low tolerance to change, the sensitivity is considered High.

CLK/LR11 - Amenity Planting in Urban Park

Amenity planting within the public park  features a selection of species such as Hibiscus tiliaceus, Livistona chinensis, Bauhinia spp., Calliandra haematocephala, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cumingiana, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Pongamia pinnata, Acacia auriculiformis, Ixora spp., Schefflera arboricola, Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri', Ficus microcarpa 'Golden Yellow', and Rhododendron spp. Much of the planting is relatively young and can be relatively easily replaced to a similar state; however semi-mature tree species do exist throughout the area. Given the quality of the LR, relative maturity of particular species and ability to accommodate some change, the sensitivity is considered Medium.

CLK/LR12 – Grassland / Scrub on Vacant Land

Vacant lots are currently in existence on Chek Lap Kok. These areas are generally devoid of LRs and accommodate temporary land use including open storage and car parking. These spaces are generally covered in self-seeded vegetation comprising of low growing opportunistic scrub and grass species, with occasional residual ornamental plants from previous uses. Species include Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Roystonea regia, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Wedelia trilobata, Chloris spp., Melinis spp., and Cerbera manghas. The sensitivity of this vegetation is considered Low as it is predominantly of common species and low quality.

CLK/LR13 – Artificial / Man–made Coastline

An artificial coastline of approximately 17,000 m surrounds the majority of Chek Lap Kok and Tung Chung. This engineered coastline consists of loose quarried armour rock which forms the edge of the land formation where it meets the North Lantau coastal waters. Given this resource has no natural landscape status or regional importance and accommodates a high tolerance to change, the sensitivity is Low.

SC/LR1 – Natural Rocky Coastline of Sha Chau Islands

Sheung Sha Chau Island features a continuous rocky coastline around the circumference of the island, totalling approximately 900 m, which is briefly interrupted by the existing Sha Chau jetty to the east. The rocky coastline of Sheung Sha Chau Island is peppered with large boulders with occasional rocky outcrops appearing just off the coastal edge. The sensitivity given is High.

SC/LR2 – Natural Vegetation on Sha Chau Islands

Sheung Sha Chau Island is heavily covered with naturally established and opportunistic vegetation. Sheung Sha Chau Island topography stems from a singular landform consisting of two distinguished hills rising steadily from the coastline to approximately +50 mPD. The entire island is heavily covered with vegetation. Vegetation on the Sha Chau islands includes Hibiscus tiliaceus, Phoenix hanceana, Scaevola taccada, Pandanus tectorius, Ficus superba var. japonica, Wedelia chinensis, Gordonia axillaris, Schefflera heptaphylla, Dicranopteris linearis, Litsea glutinosa, Lantana camara, Casuarina equisetifolia, Bridelia tomentosa, Terminalia catappa, Cerbera manghas, Rhaphiolepis indica, Cassytha filiformis, and Alpinia zerumbet. The sensitivity given is High.

4.4.1.2       Landscape Character Areas

Relevant description of the Landscape Character Areas of the entire site area as identified in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) (Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-004 Rev. G and Drawing No. MCL/P132/EIA/15-008 Rev. B in Appendix 5.1) is summarised below.

CLK/LCA1 - Airport Landscape

This extensive LCA consists of a flat, open and an expansive reclaimed landscape comprising airport runways, taxiways, grass verges, and the terminal complex. The landscape also contains a significant number of associated low and medium-rise out-buildings, offices and related facilities surrounding the airport and its complex, all connected by roads and highways. Other than grass, vegetation is limited to ornamental tree and shrub planting along access roads and areas around buildings. The result is a landscape characterised by its visual openness and expansive large scale, airport activity and artificial character. Sensitivity: Low.

CLK/LCA2- Inshore Water Landscape

These are areas of coastal water to the north, east and west of Chek Lap Kok. The character area is partially enclosed by surrounding landmasses including Lantau Island and the south west coast of the New Territories, as well as Lung Kwu Chau and the Sha Chau islands which create a limited sense of enclosure or containment. While the landscape is characterised predominantly by the horizontality and muted hues of the coastal waters, the landscape also includes ferry traffic as well as other waterborne recreational and commercial activity. The result is a largely open and natural landscape which is interspersed human features and activities. Sensitivity: High.

CLK/LCA4b - Coastal Upland and Hillside Landscape – Scenic Hill

This landscape area encompasses the last remaining area of natural hillside of the original Chek Lap Kok. The upland landscape of Scenic Hill consists of hillsides, knolls, ridges and spurs and is covered in scrub and grassy vegetation with occasional rocky outcrops. Scrubland is found on the lower slopes to the south where natural rocky coastline can be found whereas to the north coastal woodland exists. At the peak of Scenic Hill a viewing pavilion allows for distant sightlines and panoramic views of Chek Lap Kok and Tung Chung. This area is designated Green Belt under the current OZP (No. S/I-CLK/12). Sensitivity: High.

CLK/LCA7 - Transportation Corridor Landscape

The landscape extends along the transportation corridor on the eastern edge of Chek Lap Kok and includes the infrastructure associated with HKBCF which extends along the south coast of Chek Lap Kok. The primary features are the railway, highway and local roads. This linear landscape includes flyovers, roundabouts, signage gantries, traffic islands, and footbridges as well as miscellaneous roadside land uses. Between the roads and railway are landscaped embankments with semi-mature vegetation including trees and shrubs. Sensitivity: Low.

CLK/LCA8 - On-going Major Development Landscape

Located to the east of Terminal 2 (T2), on the site of the temporary golf course planned to be decommissioned due to the future North Commercial District (NCD) development, this LCA is surrounded by various airport facilities and infrastructure. At the time of the 3RS construction, this will be a transitional landscape awaiting or undergoing construction and redevelopment. The land will be characterised by flat, low-lying topography, stripped of significant vegetation or significant built structures and will include major construction activity such as cranes or other construction machinery involved in the construction of the NCD development . As this landscape has an indeterminate status with on-going disturbance, the landscape will have a desolate and transient character and a Low sensitivity to change.

SC/LCA1 – Island Landscape

Lying offshore from the main landmass of Hong Kong, the Sha Chau islands are located in the north Lantau waters within the SCLKC Marine Park, and forms part of the Lung Kwu Chau, Tree Island and Sha Chau SSSI. The islands are rocky and steep in nature and are entirely covered in shrub and grass vegetation. Sheung Sha Chau Island contains no human features or access apart from the connection to the Sha Chau jetty. Isolated and exposed, the island landscape is particularly notable for its remote character. Sensitivity: High.

4.4.2            Vegetation Survey

4.4.2.1       Sheung Sha Chau Island

During the vegetation survey conducted on 28 August 2015 at Sheung Sha Chau Island, two vegetation types were identified, namely Secondary Woodland (SW) and Tall Shrubland (TS). The approximate locations of these vegetation types are shown in Figure 5.2. Representative photographs of the two vegetation types are shown in Appendix 5.2. The typical species composition at each of the vegetation types are described below:

Secondary Woodland (SW)

This vegetation type is largely dominated by the tree species Ficus microcarpa, with other trees such as Cerbera manghas, Ficus virens, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Schefflera heptaphylla also commonly observed. Other flora species recorded include Cuscuta species, Pandanus tectorius and Phoenix loureiroi.

Tall Shrubland (TS)

This vegetation type is dominated by flora species such as Dicranopteris pedata, Lantana camara, Miscanthus sinensis, Pandanus tectorius and Sageretia thea. Species including Cerbera manghas, Cuscuta species, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea indica, Phoenix loureiroi, Pueraria lobata var. montana, Rhus succedanea, Schefflera heptaphylla and Thespesia populnea are also commonly observed.

4.4.2.2       Airport Island

During the vegetation survey conducted on 13 October and 19 November 2015 at Airport Island, twelve vegetation types were identified. The approximate locations of these vegetation types are shown in Figure 5.3. Representative photographs of these twelve vegetation types are shown in Appendix 5.2. The typical species composition at each of the vegetation types are described below:

CLK/LR2 – Grass / Turf Areas around Runways and Verges

This vegetation type is entirely covered with well-maintained lawn. Grass species present are not readily identifiable due to absence of reproductive parts as a result of regular mowing.

CLK/LR3 – Landscaped Areas Around Existing Airport Buildings

This vegetation type is largely dominated by amenity tree and shrub planting including Ixora stricta, Callistemon viminalis, Senna surattensis, Calliandra haematocephala, Lantana montevidensis, Agave americana and Hibiscus species.

CLK/LR4a - Roadside Vegetation – Amenity Planting

This vegetation type is dominated by roadside trees and shrub planting including Ixora stricta, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia confusa, Acacia mangium, Senna siamea, Grevillea robusta, Litsea glutinosa, Melia azedarach, Phoenix roebelenii, Plumeria rubra, Roystonea regia, Calliandra haematocephala, Duranta repens 'Golden Leaves', Bougainvillea species., Cycas revoluta, Dypsis lutescens, Acacia auriculiformis, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus microcarpa 'Golden Yellow', Ficus benjamina, Bauhinia species., and Nerium species.

CLK/LR4b - Roadside Vegetation on Modified Slopes

This vegetation type is dominated by both self-seeded and planted native and exotic species including Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pinus elliottii, Leucaena leucocephala, Thevetia peruviana, Bauhinia species., Acacia confusa and Acacia mangium.

CLK/LR5 – Natural Coastline

Vegetation coverage for this vegetation type is low, with coastal species often observed, such as Clerodendrum inerme, Gymnanthera oblonga, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Pandanus tectorius. Other species observed include Acacia confusa, Cassytha filiformis, Ficus microcarpa, Gynura divaricate, Lantana camara and Litsea glutinosa.

CLK/LR10b - Coastal Woodland and Scrubland on Scenic Hill - Secondary Woodland (SW)

This vegetation type includes woodland found on the north-facing slope of Scenic Hill. Dominant tree species include Celtis sinensis, Cratoxylum cochinchinense, Litsea glutinosa, Mallotus paniculatus, Schefflera heptaphylla and Sterculia lanceolata. Dominant shrub species included Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia, Psychotria asiatica and Scolopia saeva.

CLK/LR10b - Coastal Woodland and Scrubland on Scenic Hill - Plantation Woodland (PW)

This vegetation type is mostly dominated by semi-mature native and exotic trees of similar age and size. Dominant tree species include Acacia confusa, Acacia mangium, Bauhinia species, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Lophostemon confertus and Melia azedarach. Dominant shrub species include Calliandra haematocephala, Lantana camara and Wedelia trilobata.

CLK/LR10b - Coastal Woodland and Scrubland on Scenic Hill – Tall Shrubland (TS)

This vegetation type is dominated by native shrubs and herbaceous plants of no more than 2 m in height with some scattered trees. Dominant woody species include Cratoxylum cochinchinense, Eurya nitida, Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and Rhaphiolepis indica. Dominant herbaceous plants include Lygodium japonicum, Melastoma sanguineum, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and Tetracera asiatica.

CLK/LR10b - Coastal Woodland and Scrubland on Scenic Hill – Shrubby Grassland (SG)

This vegetation type is dominated by herbaceous cover with shrubs no more than 2 m in height scattered in patches. Dominant shrub species include Baeckea frutescens, Bridelia tomentosa, Eurya nitida, Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia, Phyllanthus emblica, Rhaphiolepis indica and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Dominant herbaceous plants include Arundinella setosa, Dianella ensifolia, Dicranopteris pedata, Eremochloa ciliaris, Gahnia tristis and Tetracera asiatica.

CLK/LR11 - Amenity Planting in Urban Park

This vegetation type is dominated by amenity trees and shrub planting including Hibiscus tiliaceus, Bauhinia species, Calliandra haematocephala, Acacia auriculiformis, Ixora species and Rhododendron species. Other species observed include Acacia confusa, Bambusa species, Duranta erecta, Hibiscus species, Melia azedarach and Thevetia peruviana.

CLK/LR12 – Grassland / Scrub on Vacant Land

This vegetation type is dominated by self-seeded vegetation comprising low growing opportunistic scrub and grass species, with occasional residual ornamental plants from previous uses, including Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Wedelia trilobata, Chloris species and Melinis species. Other observed species include Euphorbia hirta, Eragrostis tenella and Digitaria species.

CLK/LR13 – Artificial / Man–made Coastline

This vegetation type has sparse vegetation coverage with mainly self-seeded herbaceous vegetation such as Bacopa monnieri, Eragrostis tenella, Euphorbia hirta,  Heliotropium indicum, Macroptilium atropurpureum and Triumfetta rhomboidea growing from the gaps between boulders. Tree species Ficus microcarpa and Hibiscus tiliaceus are also observed.

4.4.3            Landscape Resources and Elements of Particular Concern

During the landscape and visual baseline monitoring, no landscape resource / element of particular concern was identified. 

4.4.4            Landscape Character Assessment

4.4.4.1       Sheung Sha Chau Island

According to the findings of the site visit on 28 August 2015 undertaken with reference to the description on the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Areas in the approved EIA report (AEIAR-185/2014), the existing landscape character of Sheugn Sha Chau Island is similar to that identified in the EIA stage. General views showing the landscape character of Sheung Sha Chau Island are shown in Appendix 5.3.

The landscape of Sheung Sha Chau is characterised by the natural remote island landscape with no human features or access apart from the connection to the Sha Chau jetty to the east. It is rocky and steep in nature and is heavily covered with naturally established secondary woodland and tall shrubland dominated by native flora species. The island features a continuous rocky coastline around the circumference, totalling approximately 900 m, which is briefly interrupted by the existing Sha Chau jetty to the east. The rocky coastline of Sheung Sha Chau Island is peppered with large boulders with occasional rocky outcrops appearing just off the coastal edge. Due to the largely natural landscape with dense vegetation cover, the sensitivity to landscape changes of Sheung Sha Chau Island is considered High.

4.4.4.2       Airport Island

According to the findings of the site visit on 13 October and 19 November 2015 undertaken with reference to the description on the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Areas in the approved EIA report (AEIAR-185/2014), the existing landscape character of Airport Island is similar to that identified in the EIA stage. General views showing the landscape character of Airport Island are shown in Appendix 5.3.

The landscape of Airport Island is dominated by a flat, open and expansive reclaimed landscape comprising airport runways, taxiways, grass verges, and the terminal complex. The landscape also contains a significant number of associated low and medium-rise out-buildings, offices and related facilities surrounding the airport and its complex, all connected by roads and highways. Other than grass, vegetation is limited to ornamental tree and shrub planting along access roads and areas around buildings. The result is a landscape characterised by its visual openness and expansive large scale, airport activity and artificial character. Sensitivity of such landscape character to landscape changes is considered Low.

Other than the dominant airport landscape, the Scenic Hill, which is the last remaining area of natural hillside of the original Chep Lap Kok, represent another relatively natural landscape character on the Airport Island. The upland landscape of Scenic Hill consists of hillsides, knolls, ridges and spurs and is covered in scrub and grassy vegetation with occasional rocky outcrops. Scrubland is found on the lower slopes to the south where natural rocky coastline can be found whereas to the north coastal woodland exists. At the peak of Scenic Hill a viewing pavilion allows for distant sightlines and panoramic views of Chek Lap Kok and Tung Chung. Part of the hillslope at the southwest has been converted to a tunnel portal for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) Hong Kong Link Road (HKLR). Sensitivity of this landscape to changes is considered High.

Along the east coast of Airport Island, a major transportation corridor lies on the eastern edge of Chek Lap Kok and includes the infrastructure associated with HZMB Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) which extends along the south coast of Chek Lap Kok. The primary features are the railway, highway and local roads. This linear landscape includes flyovers, roundabouts, signage gantries, traffic islands, and footbridges as well as miscellaneous roadside land uses. Between the roads and railway are landscaped embankments with semi-mature vegetation including trees and shrubs. Sensitivity of this transportation corridor landscape to changes is considered Low.

Located to the east of Terminal 2 (T2), on the site of the temporary golf course planned to be decommissioned due to the future North Commercial District (NCD) development, this area is surrounded by various airport facilities and infrastructure. This area is currently fenced off with disturbed surfaces sparsely covered with vegetation which is not properly maintained. At the time of the 3RS construction, this is expected to be a transitional landscape awaiting or undergoing construction and redevelopment. The land will be characterised by flat, low-lying topography, stripped of significant vegetation or significant built structures and will include major construction activity such as cranes or other construction machinery involved in the construction of the NCD development . As this landscape has an indeterminate status with on-going disturbance, the landscape will have a desolate and transient character and a Low sensitivity to change.

To the north of the existing Airport Island is the land formation area of the Project, which is currently open coastal water. The character area is partially enclosed by surrounding landmasses including Lantau Island and the south west coast of the New Territories, as well as Lung Kwu Chau and the Sha Chau islands which create a limited sense of enclosure or containment. While the landscape is characterised predominantly by the horizontality and muted hues of the coastal waters, the landscape also includes ferry traffic as well as other waterborne recreational and commercial activity. The result is a largely open and natural landscape which is interspersed human features and activities. Sensitivity to landscape change is considered High.

4.4.5            Deviation of Actual Baseline from Predicted Baseline

To confirm if the actual baseline condition in November 2015 is the same as the predicted baseline in 2016 during the EIA stage, updated views were taken from the same 10 viewpoints, or nearby locations with similar views, as presented in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) on 14, 17, 19, 22 and 24 November 2015. Locations of these 10 viewpoints are shown in Figure 5.4. The photographs showing the baseline condition as of June 2013 and the photomontages showing the planned baseline in 2016 in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) are included in Figures 5.5 to 5.14 for comparison with the photographs of the actual baseline condition taken in November 2015.

In general, the observed deviations of the actual baseline conditions from the predicted baseline as shown in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) are considered minor and do not significantly alter the overall landscape and visual baseline condition as illustrated in Figures 5.5 to 5.14. Therefore, the assessment results of the landscape and visual impact assessment as presented in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is considered still valid. Additional landscape and visual mitigation measures other than those recommended in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) are not required.

The major differences between the predicted baseline in 2016 at the EIA stage and the actual baseline as observed in November 2015 are described below:

Hong Kong-Zhuhai Macao Bridge Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities

During the EIA stage, it was assumed that by 2016, the construction of HZMB HKBCF, including infrastructures on the reclaimed area, would be largely completed with some amenity landscape planting already in place. However, as shown in the photographs showing the existing view in November 2015, the reclamation for HZMB HKBCF is largely complete, but the reclaimed area is a piece of vacant land with mainly exposed soil surface without any infrastructure and amenity landscape planting.

Due to the delay in programme of the HZMB HKBCF, the implementation of landscape and visual mitigation measures, such as amenity planting on HKBCF, will delay. The duration of landscape and visual impact during construction is therefore expected to lengthen. However, such increase in duration of impact is limited to the construction phase of HZMB HKBCF and is anticipated to be relatively short compared to the overall construction programme. It does not affect the cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment results in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014).         

Hong Kong-Zhuhai Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road

During the EIA stage, it was assumed that by 2016, the construction of HZMB HKLR would be largely completed with the link road in place all along the alignment. However, as shown in the photographs showing the existing view in November 2015, the construction of HZMB HKLR is largely completed only at the section between Scenic Hill and Chep Lap Kok South Road. The remaining section along South Perimeter Road is still under construction with only the bridge columns in place without the bridge deck.   

Due to the delay in programme of the HZMB HKLR, the construction of the bridge deck is still in progress. The duration of landscape and visual impact during construction due to increased marine traffic is therefore expected to lengthen. However, such increase in duration of impact is limited to the construction phase of HZMB HKLR and is anticipated to be relatively short compared to the overall construction programme. It does not affect the cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment results in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014).         

Reclaimed Area for Hong Kong-Zhuhai Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road (tunnel section)

During the EIA stage, it was assumed that by 2016, the construction of HZMB HKLR on the reclaimed area for the tunnel section on the eastern side of Airport Island, including amenity landscape planting, would be largely completed. However, as shown in the photographs showing the existing view in November 2015, this area is still largely under construction with mostly bare ground surface.   

With the delay in amenity planting, the duration of landscape and visual impact during construction is expected to lengthen. However, such increase in duration of impact is limited to the construction phase of HZMB HKLR and is anticipated to be relatively short compared to the overall construction programme. It therefore does not affect the cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment results in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014).  

Southern Connection of Tuen Mun-Chek Lap Kok Link

During the EIA stage, it was assumed that by 2016, the construction of the Southern Connection of Tuen Mun-Chek Lap Kok Link (TM-CLKL) would be largely completed. However, as shown in the photographs showing the existing view in November 2015, only bridge columns are present with the bridge deck to be constructed.  

Due to the delay in programme of the TM-CLKL, the construction of the bridge deck is still in progress. The duration of landscape and visual impact during construction due to increased marine traffic is therefore expected to lengthen. However, such increase in duration of impact is limited to the construction phase of TM-CLKL and is anticipated to be relatively short compared to the overall construction programme. It does not affect the cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment results in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014).  

SkyCity Nine Eagles Golf Course

During the EIA stage, it was assumed that by 2016, the golf course would have been decommissioned, leaving the area as a piece of vacant land for the future NCD development. However, as shown in the photographs showing the existing view in November 2015, the golf course is although disused and fenced off, decommissioning has not taken place and the golf course landscape is still clearly observable.     

Instead of contributing to the cumulative landscape and visual impact during construction, the delay of the NCD development keeps the disused golf course intact and maintains the greenery. Such deviation from the anticipated situation reduces the magnitude of cumulative landscape and visual impact. However, since the scale of the NCD development is relatively small compared to the 3RS Project, such reduction in cumulative impact is considered insignificant and does not affect the cumulative landscape and visual impact assessment results in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014). 

4.5           Conclusion

Base on the results of the landscape and visual baseline monitoring conducted on 28 August 2015, 13 October 2015 and 19 November 2015 with reference to the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Area maps in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) as shown in Appendix 5.1, it is concluded that the landscape and visual baseline condition within the Project site boundary is very similar to that in the EIA stage. The landscape and visual impact assessment in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is still valid. There is no major change in the landscape and visual baseline condition comparing to that of the EIA stage. Additional landscape and visual mitigation measures other than those recommended in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) are not required.

 

5                 Conclusions

 

 

 

Baseline monitoring was carried out prior to the commencement of construction works of the project in accordance with the requirements set out in the EP and recommended in the updated EM&A Manual. The weather during the baseline period was generally sunny and cloudy.  All monitoring equipment used were properly calibrated and have valid calibration certificates.

Air quality monitoring was carried out between 6 November 2015 and 27 November 2015 at each of the air quality monitoring stations. There were no major observations of note during monitoring. As no project-related activities have commenced yet when the baseline air quality monitoring were carried out, the monitoring results obtained are considered representative of the ambient air quality condition prior to the commencement of works for the project.

Noise monitoring was carried out between 6 November 2015 and 27 November 2015 at each of the noise monitoring stations. The weather condition during the monitoring period was mainly sunny and cloudy. The dominant sources of background noise were aircraft noise at NM2*, NM3A, NM5 and NM6 and road traffic noise at NM1A, and student activities at NM4. As no project-related activities have commenced yet when the baseline noise monitoring were carried out, the noise monitoring results are considered representative of the baseline condition prior to the commencement of works for the project.

The pre-construction Egretry Survey was carried out between April 2015 and July 2015 in accordance with the approved EIA Report and EM&A Manual. The Egretry Survey Plan will be submitted under a separate cover to EPD for approval in accordance with EP Condition 2.14.

The landscape and visual baseline monitoring were conducted on 28 August 2015, 13 October 2015 and 19 November 2015 with reference to the Landscape Resources and Landscape Character Area maps in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014). It is concluded that the landscape and visual baseline condition within the project site boundary is very similar to that in the EIA stage. The landscape and visual impact assessment in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) is still valid. Additional landscape and visual mitigation measures other than those recommended in the approved EIA Report (AEIAR-185/2014) are not required.