Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System

Updated Environmental Monitoring and Audit Manual

May 2017

 

 

  

 

 

 

Contents

1      Introduction

1.1    Purpose of the Manual

1.2    Project Description

1.3    Tentative Construction Programme

1.4    Project Organisation

2      Air Quality Impact

2.1    Construction Air Quality Monitoring

2.2    Operational Air Quality Monitoring

3      Hazard to Human Life

3.1    Introduction

3.2    Recommendation

4      Noise Impact

4.1    Aircraft Noise Monitoring

4.2    Fixed Noise Sources Monitoring

4.3    Construction Airborne Noise Monitoring

4.4    Road Traffic and Marine Traffic Noise Monitoring

5      Water Quality Impact

5.1    Construction Water Quality Monitoring

5.2    Operation Water Quality Monitoring

6      Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Implications

6.1    Construction Phase Monitoring

6.2    Operation Phase Monitoring

7      Waste Management Implications

7.1    Construction Phase Monitoring

7.2    Operation Phase Monitoring

8      Land Contamination

8.1    Construction Phase Monitoring

8.2    Operation Phase Monitoring

9      Terrestrial Ecological Impact

9.1    Ecological Mitigation Measures

9.2    Pre-construction Egretry Survey

9.3    Ecological Monitoring

10    Marine Ecological Impact

10.1  Introduction

10.2  Ecological Monitoring

10.3  Detailed Implementation of Dolphin Exclusion Zone

10.4  Acoustic Decoupling

10.5  Action/Limit Levels and Event Action Plan for CWD

10.6  Ecological Audit Requirement

11    Fisheries Impact

11.1  Introduction

11.2  Mitigation Measures

12    Landscape and Visual Impact

12.1  Introduction

12.2  Baseline Monitoring

12.3  Mitigation Measures

12.4  Environmental Monitoring and Audit Requirements

12.5  Monitoring Programs

12.6  Construction Phase & Establishment Period

12.7  Event and Action Plan

13    Cultural Heritage

14    Environmental Auditing

14.1  Site Inspection

14.2  Compliance with Legal and Contractual Requirements

14.3  Checklist of Key EIA Assumptions

14.4  Environmental Complaints

14.5  Environmental Log-book

15    Reporting

15.1  Introduction

15.2  Baseline Monitoring Reports

15.3  Monthly EM&A Reports

15.4  Quarterly EM&A Report

15.5  Annual EM&A Report

15.6  Final EM&A Review Report

15.7  Data Keeping

15.8  Interim Notifications of Environmental Quality Limit Exceedances

16    Reference

Appendices

Appendix A.       3RS Phasing Programme

Appendix B.       Sampling Environmental Monitoring Data Recording Sheet

Appendix C.      Implementation Schedule

Appendix D.      Sample Environmental Log-book

Appendix E.       Checklist of Key Assumptions Adopted in the EIA Report

Appendix F.       Sample Template for Interim Notifications

 

 

 

 

Tables

Table 2‑1:              Construction Air Quality Monitoring Stations  11

Table 2‑2:              Updated Locations of Construction Air Quality Monitoring Stations  12

Table 2‑3:              Action and Limit Levels for Air Quality  14

Table 2‑4:              Event and Action Plan for Air Quality  14

Table 2.5:              Operational Air Quality Monitoring  16

Table 2.6:              The Existing Monitoring Equipment Adopted at South Station, North Station and Sha Chau Station  18

Table 2.7:              Concentration Breakdown for the Cumulative Annual NO2 Impact at the Key Sensitive Area under the 3RS scenario in Year 2031  18

Table 4‑1:              Construction Noise Monitoring Stations  26

Table 4‑2:              Construction Noise Monitoring Stations  29

Table 4‑3:              Action and Limit Levels for Construction Noise  30

Table 4‑4:              Event and Action Plan for Construction Noise  30

Table 5‑1:              Laboratory Analysis for SS, Nutrients and Heavy Metals  35

Table 5‑2:              Water Quality Monitoring Stations (baseline and impact monitoring) 36

Table 5‑3:              Action and Limit Levels for Water Quality  43

Table 5‑4:              Action and Limit Levels for General Impact Water Quality Monitoring and Regular DCM Monitoring  44

Table 5‑5:              Action and Limit Levels for Intensive DCM Monitoring  45

Table 5‑6:              Action Level and Limit Level for SR1A and SR8  46

Table 5‑7:              Event and Action Plan for General Impact Water Quality Monitoring  46

Table 5‑8:              Event and Action Plan for DCM Process  48

Table 5‑9:              Treated Effluent Quality Criteria for Greywater Treatment Facility  51

Table 7.1:              Action and Limit Level of Construction Waste  54

Table 7‑2:              Summary of Waste Arising during Construction Phase  56

Table 10‑1:            Land-based Survey Station Details  70

Table 10‑2:            Approach for Defining Action Level and Limit Level 78

Table 10‑3:            Derived Values of Action Level and Limit Level 78

Table 10-4:            Event and Action Plan for CWD   79

Table 12‑1:            Monitoring Programme for Landscape and Visual 88

Table 12‑2:            Preliminary Funding, Implementation, Management and Maintenance Proposal 89

Table 12‑3:            Event and Action Plan for Landscape and Visual 89

Table 14.1:            Environmental Complaint Channels  95

 

Charts

Chart 1‑1:              Project Organisation Chart 4

Chart 5‑1:              Flow Chart for DCM Monitoring  42

Chart 7.1:              Event and Action Plan for Non-compliance of the WMP, Contract-specific WMPs, Any Statutory and Contractual Requirements  54

 

Drawings

MCL/P132/EMA/1-001                Key Project Components – Land Formation

MCL/P132/EMA/1-002                Key Project Components – Airfield Facilities

MCL/P132/EMA/1-003                Key Project Components – Passenger Facilities

MCL/P132/EMA/1-004                Key Project Components – Road Network and Key Infrastructure

MCL/P132/EMA/2-001                Locations of Air Quality Monitoring Stations (Construction)

MCL/P132/EMA/2-002                Locations of Air Quality Monitoring Stations (Operation)

MCL/P132/EMA/4-001                Locations of Construction Noise Monitoring Stations

MCL/P132/EMA/5-001                Updated Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Submarine 11 kV Cable Diversion Works

MCL/P132/EMA/5-002a              Previous Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Land Formation Works

MCL/P132/EMA/5-002b              Updated Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Land Formation Works

MCL/P132/EMA/5-003                Indicative Locations for DCM Monitoring Stations

MCL/P132/EMA/9-001                Boundary of Sha Chau Egretry and Alternatives of the Daylighting Locations

MCL/P132/EMA/10-001              Pre-Construction Phase Coral Dive Survey Locations

MCL/P132/EMA/10-002            Vessel Based Dolphin Monitoring Transects in Baseline Monitoring

MCL/P132/EMA/10-003              Vessel Based Dolphin Monitoring Transects in Construction, Post-Construction and Operation Phases

MCL/P132/EMA/10-004              Land Based Dolphin Monitoring in Baseline and Construction Phases

MCL/P132/EMA/10-005              Locations for Autonomous Passive Acoustic Monitoring in Baseline and Construction Phases

MCL/P132/EMA/10-006              Schematic Diagram of Noise Isolation Pad for PME

MCL/P132/EMA/12-001.1          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Plan – Chek Lap Kok

MCL/P132/EMA/12-001.2          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Blow Up Plan – Chek Lap Kok

MCL/P132/EMA/12-001.3          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Blow Up Plan – Chek Lap Kok

MCL/P132/EMA/12-001.4          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Blow Up Plan – Chek Lap Kok

MCL/P132/EMA/12-001.5          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Blow Up Plan – Chek Lap Kok

MCL/P132/EMA/12.001.6          Landscape and Visual Mitigation Arrangement Plan – Sha Chau

MCL/P132/EMA/14-001              Flow Chart of Complaint Investigation Procedures

 

 

 

 

1        Introduction

1.1             Purpose of the Manual

1.1.1.1      In accordance with Condition 3.1 of Environmental Permit (EP) (EP No. EP-489/2014), an updated Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A) Manual shall be prepared before the commencement of construction works. The first submission of Updated EM&A was made to the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) on 18 September 2015, and finalised and release via the project’s dedicated website in January 2016.

1.1.1.2      The purpose of this updated EM&A Manual (hereafter referred to as the Manual) is to guide the setup of an EM&A programme to ensure compliance with the recommendations in the approved Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report (Register No. AEIAR-185/2014), to assess the effectiveness of the recommended mitigation measures and to identify any further need for additional mitigation measures or remedial action. This Manual outlines the monitoring and audit programme proposed for the “Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System” (the project).

1.1.1.3      This updated submission incorporates the Action and Limit Levels of air quality, water quality and marine ecological monitoring based on the latest submissions of Baseline Monitoring Reports approved by EPD. Section 5 incorporates the alternative water quality monitoring locations based on the latest submission of Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report, as well as changes for monitoring of Deep Cement Mixing works based on the approved Detailed Plan on Deep Cement Mixing. Section 7 presents the updated timing of waste generation based on the latest phasing programme in Appendix A. Section 13 incorporates the information of night-vision device based on the Dolphin Exclusion Zone Plan. Section 14 presents the updated mailing address for receiving written comments, enquires and suggestions has been updated based on the latest submission of Complaint Management Plan. Appendix A presents the updated phasing programme based on the best currently available information.

1.2             Project Description

1.2.1.1      The project will consist of a new third runway with associated taxiways, aprons (or aircraft stands), as well as new passenger concourse buildings and expansion of the existing Terminal 2 (T2) building. Included in the project will be related airside and landside works and associated ancillary and supporting facilities.

1.2.2         Land Formation

1.2.2.1      Based on the preferred airport development option identified, land is required to be formed to the north of the existing airport island, which will provide a platform for the development. The proposed land formation works will mainly include:

     Land formation of not more than 650 ha to the north of the existing airport island with partial construction over the contaminated mud pits. The area of land formation is defined to be the area at and above the high water mark of +2.3 mPD; and

     Modification and integration of the existing seawall at the northern, western and eastern sides of the existing North Runway into the new land formation and re-provisioning of new seawall around the land formation.

1.2.3         Airfield Facilities

1.2.3.1      The proposed airfield facilities will mainly include:

     Construction of a third runway, related taxiway systems, associated airfield infrastructure, aircraft navigational aids, approach lighting systems and new Hong Kong International Airport Approach Area (HKIAAA) beacons;

     Construction of the third runway passenger concourse (TRC) aprons;

     Temporary closure and modification of the existing North Runway along with related taxiway systems; and

     Expansion of the freighter aprons in the existing Midfield area between the existing North and South runways.

1.2.4         Passenger Facilities

1.2.4.1      The proposed passenger facilities will mainly include:

     Construction of the TRC and passenger fixed link bridges;

     Expansion of the existing passenger T2;

     Extension of the automated people mover (APM) and associated depot and maintenance / stabling areas; and

     Expansion of the baggage handling system (BHS) and associated baggage halls and early bag store.

1.2.5         Ancillary Facilities

1.2.5.1      New ancillary facilities will be provided to support the operational needs of the TRC and airfield facilities. These ancillary facilities will be located on the west and east sides of the proposed land formation area (i.e. within the western support area and the eastern support area respectively) and will accommodate utility buildings, airport support developments, air cargo staging, catering, aircraft maintenance, aircraft engine run-up (engine testing) facilities, ground services equipment area, early bag storage facility, fire station, fire training facility, petrol fuelling station, new air traffic control towers (ATCTs), Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) facility, mobile phone system antenna towers, stores, security gate houses, etc.

1.2.6         Infrastructure and Utilities

1.2.6.1      The proposed infrastructure and utilities will mainly include:

     Expansion of the landside and airside road network in the passenger, cargo and maintenance areas and landside transportation facilities, including new car parks;

     Construction of new airside road access, including the construction of new airside road tunnels and ramps, to connect the new third runway facilities with the existing airport;

     Modification to existing and construction of new land based infrastructure including the seawater cooling and flushing system, stormwater drainage system, greywater system, sewerage network and potable water supply, Towngas supply, 132 kV / 11 kV and other power supply networks; communication networks; and

     Modifications and re-provisions to existing marine facilities including the underwater aviation fuel pipelines between Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) and the off-airport fuel receiving facilities at Sha Chau, the associated underwater 11 kV cable and pilot cable and sea rescue boat points.

1.2.6.2      The key project components are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/1-001 to MCL/P132/EMA/1-004.

1.3             Tentative Construction Programme

1.3.1.1      The tentative programme for operation of the three-runway system (3RS) will be in 2024. Given the scale and complexity of the project, construction and the concurrent runway operational configuration will be implemented in phases. The tentative phasing programme is provided in Appendix A which is based on the currently available information. This programme is subject to change during the detailed design stage.

1.4             Project Organisation

1.4.1.1      The proposed project organisation is shown in Chart 1-1 below.

Chart 1‑1:         Project Organisation Chart

 

1.4.2         Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK)

1.4.2.1      AAHK is the project proponent for the development of the project, and will assume overall responsibility for the project.

1.4.3         Environmental Protection Department (EPD)

1.4.3.1      EPD is the statutory enforcement body for environmental protection matters in Hong Kong.

1.4.4         Project Manager (PM)

1.4.4.1      The Project Manager (PM) or the PM’s Representative is responsible for overseeing the construction works and for ensuring that the works are undertaken by the Contractor in accordance with the specification and contract requirements. The duties and responsibilities of the PM with respect to EM&A include:

     To monitor the Contractor’s compliance with Contract Specifications, including the effective implementation and operation of the environmental mitigation measures;

     To employ an Independent Environmental Checker (IEC) to audit the results of the EM&A works carried out by the Environmental Team (ET);

     To monitor Contractors’ compliance with the requirements in the EP and updated EM&A Manual;

     To facilitate ET’s implementation of the EM&A programme;

     To participate in joint site inspection by the ET and IEC;

     To oversee the implementation of the agreed Event and Action Plan in the event of any exceedance; and

     To adhere to the procedures for carrying out complaint investigation.

1.4.5         Contractors

1.4.5.1      The Contractors employed by AAHK, including Contractors working on the project on a joint venture (JV) basis, should report to the PM or the PM’s Representative. The duties and responsibilities of the Contractors include:

     To comply with the relevant contract conditions and specifications on environmental protection;

     To facilitate ET’s monitoring and site inspection activities;

     To participate in the site inspections undertake by the ET and IEC, and undertake any corrective actions;

     To provide information / advice to the ET regarding works programme and activities which may contribute to the generation of adverse environmental impacts;

     To submit proposals on mitigation measures in case of exceedance of Action and Limit Levels in accordance with the Event and Action Plans;

     To implement measures to reduce impact where Action and Limit Levels are exceeded; and

     To adhere to the complaint handling procedures in accordance with this Manual and the Complaint Management Plan.

1.4.6         Environmental Team (ET)

1.4.6.1      A full time on-site ET should be employed by the AAHK / PM to conduct the EM&A programme no later than one month before the commencement of construction of the project. The ET should not be in any way an associated body of the Contractor or the IEC for the project. The ET should be headed by the full time on-site ET Leader (ETL). The ET Leader should have relevant professional qualifications in environmental control and possess at least seven years of experience in EM&A or environmental management. Suitably qualified staff should be included in the ET, and resources for the implementation of the EM&A programme should be allocated to enable fulfilment of the project’s EM&A requirements during construction of the project. The ET should report to AAHK / PM and the duties should include:

     To carry out field sampling, field measurement, testing, assessment, and reporting for various environmental parameters as required in this EM&A Manual;

     To analyse the EM&A data, review the success of EM&A programme and the adequacy of mitigation measures implemented, confirm the validity of the EIA predictions and identify any adverse environmental impacts arising and recommend suitable mitigation measures;

     To monitor compliance with conditions in the EP, environmental protection, pollution prevention and control regulations and contract specifications;

     To carry out regular site inspection at least once per week so as to investigate and audit Contractor’s site practice, equipment and work methodologies with respect to pollution control and environmental mitigation;

     To report on the EM&A results to the AAHK / PM, IEC, EPD and Contractors;

     To vet the Contractor’s method statements, design plans and submissions and check that the relevant environmental protection and pollution control measures have been included and are sufficient to comply with contractual and statutory requirements;

     To inform the AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractors the recommend suitable mitigation measures in the case of exceedance of Action and Limit Levels in accordance with the Event and Action Plans;

     To liaise with the IEC on all environmental performance matters, and ensure timely submission of all relevant EM&A pro forma for IEC’s approval;

     To provide advice to the Contractors on environmental improvement, awareness and enhancement matters, etc. on site;

     To prepare, certify and submit the Baseline, Monthly, Quarterly, Annual and Final EM&A Review Reports to the AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD timely;

     To keep a contemporaneous log-book of each and every instance or circumstance or change of circumstances, which may affect the compliance with the recommendations of the approved EIA Report and the EP; and

     To set up and manage the dedicated complaint hotline and email channel, and manage the complaint handling procedures in accordance with this Manual and the Complaint Management Plan.

1.4.7         Independent Environmental Checker (IEC)

1.4.7.1      The IEC is empowered to audit the environmental performance of construction, but is independent from the management of construction works. As such, the IEC should not be in any way an associated body of the Contractor or the ET for the project. A full time on-site IEC with a supporting team should be employed by the AAHK / PM no later than one month prior to the commencement of the construction of the project. The IEC should be a person who has relevant professional qualifications in environmental control and at least seven years of experience in EM&A or environmental management. The duties and responsibilities of the IEC are:

     To provide proactive advice to the AAHK / PM on EM&A matters related to the project;

     To verify the environmental acceptability of permanent and temporary works and relevant design plans;

     To review and verify the monitoring data and all submissions in connection with the EP, any subsequent Variations of EP (VEPs) and / or Further EP (FEPs), and EM&A reports submitted by the ET;

     To arrange and conduct at least monthly site inspections of the works during the construction phase, and to carry out ad hoc inspections if significant environmental problems are identified;

     To validate and check the accuracy of environmental monitoring;

     To audit the compliance with the complaint handling procedures in accordance with this Manual and the Complaint Management Plan;

     To verify the ET’s log-book and the investigation result of any environmental exceedance, non-compliance and complaint cases, compliance with the agreed Event and Action Plan and the effectiveness of corrective actions / measures;

     To feedback audit results to the ET by signing off relevant EM&A pro forma;

     To verify EM&A reports that have been certified by the ETL;

     To audit EIA recommendations and requirements against the status of implementation of environmental mitigation measures on site;

     To report the works conducted, and the findings, recommendations and improvements of the site inspections, after reviewing ET’s and Contractor’s works, to the AAHK / PM on a monthly basis; and

     To review the effectiveness of the EM&A programme, EIA recommendations and the adequacy of mitigation measures implemented.

 

2        Air Quality Impact

2.1      Construction Air Quality Monitoring

2.1.1      General

2.1.1.1      The project is anticipated to give rise to construction dust impacts. The key activities that would potentially result in dust emissions include land formation works; construction works on the newly formed land and on the existing airport island; operation of concrete batching plants, asphalt batching plants, crushing plant, and barging points; haul roads; diversion of submarine fuel pipeline; diversion of submarine 11 kV cable; and modifications to existing outfalls. Construction phase dust monitoring is considered necessary to check and ensure compliance that the relevant recommended mitigation measures are properly implemented.

2.1.1.2      The key objectives of the construction phase dust monitoring are:

     To identify the extent of dust impact during construction phase on sensitive receivers;

     To audit the compliance of the Contractor with regard to dust control, contract conditions and the relevant dust impact criteria;

     To determine the effectiveness of mitigation measures to control fugitive dust emission from activities during the construction phase;

     To recommend further mitigation measures if found to be necessary; and

     To comply with Action and Limit Levels for air quality as defined in this Manual.

2.1.2      Air Quality Parameters

2.1.2.1      Monitoring and audit of 24-hour Respirable Suspended Particulates (RSP or PM10) and 24-hour Fine Suspended Particulates (FSP or PM2.5) levels are not proposed.  This is because even under the hypothetical worst case Tier 1 mitigated scenario both 24-hour RSP and 24-hour FSP would comply with the corresponding Air Quality Objectives (AQO) at all Air Sensitive Receivers (ASR) throughout the construction period, except the limited non-compliance with the AQO for 24-hour RSP at up to three ASR in three of the eight construction years. Hence no significant RSP or FSP impacts are anticipated. Therefore, only 1-hour Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) will be monitored and audited at the proposed monitoring locations.  Details of the proposed monitoring locations are presented in Section 2.1.5.

2.1.2.2      One-hour TSP levels shall be measured to indicate the impacts of construction dust on air quality. The TSP levels shall be measured by following the standard high volume sampling method as set out in the Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1 (Part 50), Appendix B. Upon approval of the AAHK / PM, as an alternative to using high volume sampling method, 1-hour TSP levels can be measured by direct reading methods which are capable of producing comparable results as that by the high volume sampling method, to indicate short event impacts.

2.1.2.3      All relevant data including temperature, pressure, weather conditions, elapsed-time meter reading for the start and stop of the sampler, identification and weight of the filter paper, and any other local atmospheric factors affecting or affected by site conditions etc. shall be recorded down in detail. A sample data sheet is shown in Appendix B. The ET may develop project specific data sheet to suit this EM&A programme.

2.1.3      Monitoring Equipment

Technical Specifications as Presented in the Original EM&A Manual

2.1.3.1      High volume sampler (HVS) shall be used for carrying out the 1-hour TSP monitoring.

2.1.3.2      The ET is responsible for provision of the monitoring equipment. They shall ensure that sufficient number of samplers with an appropriate calibration kit is available for carrying out the baseline monitoring, regular impact monitoring and ad hoc monitoring. The samplers shall be equipped with an electronic mass flow controller and be calibrated against a traceable standard at regular intervals. All the equipment, calibration kit, filter papers, etc. shall be clearly labelled.

2.1.3.3      Initial calibration of dust monitoring equipment shall be conducted upon installation and thereafter at bi-monthly intervals. The transfer standard shall be traceable to the internationally recognised primary standard and be calibrated annually. The calibration data shall be properly documented for future reference by the concerned parties such as the IEC. All the data shall be shall be converted into standard temperature and pressure condition.

2.1.3.4      The flow-rate of the sampler before and after the sampling exercise with the filter in position shall be verified to be constant and be recorded down in the data sheet as shown in Appendix B.

2.1.3.5      If the ET proposes to use a direct reading dust meter to measure 1-hour TSP levels, they shall submit sufficient information to the IEC to prove that the instrument is capable of achieving a comparable result as that the HVS and may be used for the 1-hour sampling. The instrument shall also be calibrated regularly, and the 1-hour sampling shall be determined periodically by HVS to check the validity and accuracy of the results measured by direct reading method.

2.1.3.6      Wind data monitoring equipment shall also be provided and set up at conspicuous locations for logging wind speed and wind direction near to the dust monitoring locations. The equipment installation location shall be proposed by the ET and agreed with the IEC. For installation and operation of wind data monitoring equipment, the following points shall be observed:

     The wind sensors shall be installed on masts at an elevated level 10 m above ground so that they are clear of obstructions or turbulence caused by the buildings;

     The wind data shall be captured by a data logger. The data recorded in the data logger shall be downloaded periodically for analysis at least once a month;

     The wind data monitoring equipment shall be re-calibrated at least once every six months; and

     Wind direction shall be divided into 16 sectors of 22.5 degrees each.

2.1.3.7      In exceptional situations, the ET may propose alternative methods to obtain representative wind data upon approval from the AAHK / PM and agreement from the IEC.

Proposed Use of Portable Direct Reading Dust Meter and Existing Wind Data from Chek Lap Kok Wind Station

2.1.3.8      Based on the provisions and requirements set out in Section 2.1.3.5 above, a proposal of using portable direct reading dust meter in undertaking the EM&A for the 3RS project was submitted to the IEC, and agreement from the IEC was obtained. The proposal concluded that the portable direct reading dust meter is capable to provide comparable results of monitoring data as that provided by HVS, and with the benefits of allowing prompt and direct results for the EM&A reporting. The portable direct reading dust meter will be calibrated every year against HVS to check the validity an accuracy of the results measured by direct reading method.

2.1.3.9      On the other hand, the proposed use of existing wind data from Chek Lap Kok Wind Station operated by HKO for wind data collection instead of setting up a separate station near the existing station was submitted to the IEC.  Agreement from the AAHK / PM and IEC’s approval was obtained.

2.1.4      Laboratory Measurement / Analysis

2.1.4.1      A clean laboratory with constant temperature and humidity control, and equipped with necessary measuring and conditioning instruments, to handle the dust samples collected, shall be available for sample analysis, and equipment calibration and maintenance. The laboratory should be the Hong Kong Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (HOKLAS) accredited or other internationally accredited.

2.1.4.2      If a site laboratory is set up or a non-HOKLAS accredited laboratory is hired for carrying out the laboratory analysis, the laboratory equipment shall be approved by the AAHK / PM and the measurement procedures should be witnessed by the IEC. Measurement performed by the laboratory shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the AAHK / PM and the IEC. The IEC shall conduct regular audit to the measurement performed by the laboratory to ensure the accuracy of measurement results. The ET shall provide the AAHK / PM with one copy of the Title 40 of the Code of Federal regulations, Chapter 1 (part 50), Appendix B for his reference.

2.1.4.3      Filter paper of 8” X 10” shall be labelled before sampling of TSP. It shall be a clean filter paper with no pin holes, and shall be conditioned in a humidity controlled chamber for over 24-hour and be pre-weighed before use for the sampling.

2.1.4.4      After sampling, the filter paper loaded with dust shall be kept in a clean and tightly sealed plastic bag. The filter paper is then returned to the laboratory for reconditioning in the humidity controlled chamber followed by accurate weighing by an electronic balance with a readout down to 0.1 mg. The balance shall be regularly calibrated against a traceable standard.

2.1.4.5      All the collected samples shall be kept in a good condition for six months before disposal.

2.1.5      Monitoring Locations

Technical Specifications as Presented in the Original EM&A Manual

2.1.5.1      Two separate air quality monitoring locations are proposed and summarised in Table 2‑1. The status and locations of dust sensitive receivers may change after issuing this Manual. If such cases exist, the ET should propose updated monitoring locations and seek agreement from EPD, and agreement from the AAHK / PM and IEC before baseline monitoring commences.

Table 2‑1:         Construction Air Quality Monitoring Stations

ID

ID Adopted in EIA

Description

Monitoring Parameters

AR1

TC-13

Seaview Crescent Block 1

1-hour TSP

AR2

ST-1

Village house at Tin Sum

1-hour TSP

2.1.5.2      When alternative monitoring locations are proposed, the following criteria, as far as practicable, shall be followed:

     At the site boundary or such locations close to the major dust emission source;

     Close to the sensitive receptors; and

     Take into account the prevailing meteorological conditions.

2.1.5.3      Monitoring equipment must be positioned, sited and orientated properly. The ET should agree with the AAHK / PM in consultation with the IEC on the position of the samplers for the installation of the monitoring equipment. When positioning the samplers, the following points shall be noted:

     A horizontal platform with appropriate support to secure the samplers against gusty wind shall be provided;

     No two samplers shall be placed less than 2 m apart;

     The distance between the sampler and an obstacle, such as buildings, must be at least twice the height that the obstacle protrudes above the sampler;

     A minimum of 2 m of separation from walls, parapets and penthouses is required for rooftop samplers;

     A minimum of 2 m separation from any supporting structure, measured horizontally is required;

     No furnace or incinerator flue is nearby;

     Airflow around the sampler is unrestricted;

     The sampler is more than 20 m from the dripline;

     Any wire fence and gate, to protect the sampler, shall not cause any obstruction during monitoring;

     Permission must be obtained to set up the samplers and to obtain access to the monitoring stations; and

     A secured supply of electricity is needed to operate the samplers.

2.1.5.4      The ET may, depending on site conditions and monitoring results, decide whether additional monitoring locations should be included or any monitoring locations could be removed / relocated during any stage of the construction phase.

Updated Monitoring Locations

2.1.5.5      Based on the provisions and requirements set out in Sections 2.1.5.1 and 2.1.5.2 above, a change in monitoring location was proposed for AR1 (Block 1 at Seaview Crescent), and agreement was obtained from the AAHK / PM and IEC and EPD.  The location of the alternative monitoring station, AR1A, is shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/2-001. The location of the originally proposed monitoring location AR1 is also shown in the same drawing for easy reference.  Table 2‑2 summarises the updated locations of the construction air quality monitoring stations.

2.1.5.6      A change of the monitoring location in both the baseline and subsequent impact monitoring for AR1 was identified necessary as access was not granted for setting up the onsite monitoring station.  The new monitoring location AR1A proposed is situated in close proximity to Seaview Crescent and it is also considered to be a representative location for monitoring the construction phase air quality impact from the project.

Table 2‑2:         Updated Locations of Construction Air Quality Monitoring Stations

ID

ID Adopted in EIA

Description

Monitoring Parameters

AR1A(1)

-

Man Tung Road Park

1-hour TSP

AR2

ST-1

Village house at Tin Sum

1-hour TSP

Note: (1) alternative air quality monitoring location

2.1.6      Baseline Monitoring

2.1.6.1      Baseline monitoring should be conducted at all designated monitoring locations, see Table 2‑1, for at least 14 consecutive days before commencement of construction work to obtain ambient 1‑hour TSP samples. The commencement date of baseline monitoring shall be agreed between the ET / IEC / AAHK / PM to ensure timely submission of the baseline monitoring report to EPD. The selected baseline monitoring stations should reflect baseline conditions at the stations. One-hour TSP sampling shall also be done at least three times per day. The baseline monitoring will provide data for the determination of the appropriate Action Levels with the Limit Levels set against statutory or otherwise agreed limits. General meteorological conditions (wind speed, wind direction and precipitation) and notes regarding any significant adjacent dust producing sources should also be recorded throughout the baseline monitoring period.

2.1.6.2      Before commencing the baseline monitoring, the ET shall inform the IEC of the baseline monitoring programme such that the IEC can conduct on-site audit to ensure accuracy of the baseline monitoring results. During the baseline monitoring, there should not be any construction dust generating activities in the vicinity of the monitoring stations.

2.1.6.3      In case the baseline monitoring cannot be carried out at the designated monitoring locations during the baseline monitoring period, the ET shall carry out the monitoring at alternative locations that can effectively represent the baseline conditions at the impact monitoring locations. The alternative baseline monitoring locations should be approved by the AAHK / PM and agreed with the IEC.

2.1.6.4      In exceptional cases, when insufficient baseline monitoring data or questionable results are obtained, the ET should liaise with the IEC and EPD to agree on an appropriate set of data to be used as baseline reference and submit to EPD for approval.

2.1.6.5      Ambient conditions may vary seasonally and should be reviewed once every six months. If the ET considers that significant changes in the ambient conditions have risen, a repeat of the baseline monitoring may be carried out to update the baseline levels and air quality criteria after consultation and agreement with the AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD. The monitoring should be undertaken at times when Contractor’s activities are not generating dust, at least in the proximity of the monitoring stations. Should change in ambient conditions be determined, the baseline levels and, in turn, the air quality criteria, shall be revised. The revised baseline levels and air quality criteria shall be agreed with the IEC and EPD.  If the ET considers that significant changes in the ambient conditions have risen but a repeat of the 14-day baseline monitoring is not found feasible due to the presence of ongoing construction work, the ET may propose an alternative method for updating the baseline levels and air quality criteria but this shall be subject to the agreement with the IEC and EPD.

2.1.7      Impact Monitoring

2.1.7.1      The monthly schedule of the compliance and impact monitoring programme should be drawn up by the ET one month prior to the commencement of the scheduled construction period.

2.1.7.2      The ET should carry out impact monitoring throughout the entire course of the Works. For 1-hour TSP monitoring, the sampling frequency of at least three times in every six days should be undertaken when the highest dust impact is expected to occur. Highest dust impacts will be determined by the actual construction site condition, program and the works to be carried out. Before commencing the impact monitoring, the ET should inform the IEC of the impact monitoring programme such that the IEC can conduct on-site audit to ensure accuracy of the impact monitoring results.

2.1.7.3      In case of non-compliance with the air quality criteria, more frequent monitoring exercise, as specified in the Event and Action Plan, should be conducted within 24 hours after the result is obtained. This additional monitoring shall be continued until the excessive dust emission or the deterioration in air quality is rectified.

2.1.8      Event and Action Plan

2.1.8.1      Baseline 1-hour TSP monitoring was conducted for 14 consecutive days between 6 November 2015 and 27 November 2015 at two air quality monitoring stations of AR1A and AR2. The Action Levels for 1-hr TSP during impact monitoring are established based on the measured baseline TSP levels for assessing the impact and compliance during the construction of the project. Table 2‑3 shows the air quality criteria, namely Action Level (AL) and Limit Level (LL) to be used. Should non-compliance of the air quality criteria occurs, actions in accordance with the Event and Action Plan in Table 2‑4 should be carried out.

Table 2‑3:         Action and Limit Levels for Air Quality

Parameters

[1] Action Level

Limit Level (µg/m3)

1-hour TSP Level in µg/m3

For baseline level ≤ 384 µg/m3, Action Level = (130% of baseline level + Limit Level)/2

For baseline level ˃ 384 µg/m3, Action Level = Limit Level

500

 

Note:

[1] According to the latest submission of Baseline Monitoring Report approved by EPD, the Action Levels for AR1A and AR2 are 306 µg/m3 and 298 µg/m3 respectively.

Table 2‑4:         Event and Action Plan for Air Quality

 

Action

Event

ET

IEC

AAHK / PM

Contractor

Action Level

 

 

 

 

1. Exceedance for one sample

1. Identify source, investigate the causes of exceedance and propose remedial measures;

2. Inform IEC and AAHK / PM;

3. Repeat measurement to confirm finding;

4. Increase monitoring frequency to daily.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET;

2. Check Contractor’s working method.

1. Notify Contractor.

1. Rectify any unacceptable practice;

2. Amend working methods if appropriate.

2. Exceedance for two or more consecutive samples

1. Identify source;

2. Inform IEC and AAHK / PM;

3. Advise the AAHK / PM on the effectiveness of the proposed remedial measures;

4. Increase monitoring frequency to daily;

5. Discuss with IEC and Contractor on remedial actions required

6. If exceedance continues, arrange meeting with IEC and AAHK / PM

7. If exceedance stops, cease additional monitoring.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET;

2. Check Contractor’s working method

3. Discuss with ET and Contractor on possible remedial measures;

4. Advise AAHK / PM on the effectiveness of the proposed remedial measures;

5. Supervisor implementation of remedial measures.

1. Confirm receipt of notification of failure in writing;

2. Notify Contractor;

3. Ensure remedial measures properly implemented.

1. Submit proposals for remedial actions to IEC within three working days of notification;

2. Implement the agreed proposals;

3. Amend proposal if appropriate.

Limit Level

 

 

 

 

1. Exceedance for one sample

1. Identify the source, investigate the causes of exceedance and propose remedial measures;

2. Inform AAHK / PM and Contractor. If the exceedance is valid, inform EPD;

3. Repeat measurement to confirm finding;

4. Increase monitoring frequency to daily;

5. Assess effectiveness of Contractor’s remedial actions and keep AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD informed of the results.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET;

2. Check Contractor’s working method;

3. Discuss with ET and Contractor on possible remedial measures;

4. Advise AAHK / PM on the effectiveness of the proposed remedial measures;

5. Monitor the implementation of remedial measures.

1. Confirm receipt of notification of failure in writing;

2. Notify Contractor;

3. Ensure remedial measures properly implemented.

1. Take immediate action to avoid further exceedance;

2. Submit proposals for remedial actions to IEC within three working days of notification;

3. Implement the agreed proposals;

4. Amend proposal if appropriate.

2. Exceedance for two or more consecutive sample

1. Notify AAHK / PM, IEC, Contractor and EPD;

2. Identify source;

3. Repeat measurement to confirm finding;

4. Increase monitoring frequency to daily;

5. Carry out analysis of Contractor’s working procedures to determine possible mitigation to be implemented;

6. Arrange meeting with AAHK / PM and IEC to discuss the remedial actions to be taken;

7. Assess effectiveness of Contractor’s remedial actions and keep AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD informed of the results;

8. If exceedance stops, cease additional monitoring.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET;

2. Check Contractor’s working method;

3. Discuss amongst AAHK / PM, ET, and Contractor on the potential remedial actions;

4. Review Contractor’s remedial actions whenever necessary to assure their effectiveness and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

5. Monitor the implementation of remedial measures.

1. Confirm receipt of notification of failure in writing;

2. Notify Contractor;

3. In consultation with IEC, agree with the Contractor on the remedial measures to be implemented;

4. Ensure remedial measures properly implemented;

5. If exceedance continues, consider what portion of the work is responsible and instruct the Contractor to stop that portion of work until the exceedance is abated.

1. Take immediate action to avoid further exceedance;

2. Submit proposals for remedial actions to IEC within three working days of notification;

3. Implement the agreed proposals;

4. Resubmit proposals if problem still not under control;

5. Stop the relevant portion of works as determined by AAHK / PM until the exceedance is abated.

2.1.9      Mitigation Measures

2.1.9.1      Appropriate dust suppression measures should be adopted as required under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation as well as the Specified Process licences for the concrete batching plants, asphalt batching plants and rock crushing plant. A control programme can be instigated to monitor the construction process in order to enforce dust controls and modify methods of works where feasible to reduce the dust emission down to acceptable levels. The implementation schedule of the recommended air quality mitigation measures is presented in Appendix C.

2.2      Operational Air Quality Monitoring

2.2.1      General

2.2.1.1      The operational air quality impact assessment presented as part of the EIA Report has concluded that the operation of the project will not give rise to adverse residual air quality impacts.  The assessment findings for Year 2031 3RS scenario indicated that cumulative NO2, RSP, FSP, SO2 and CO levels comply with the relevant AQOs at all ASR. Nevertheless, to be prudent, it is proposed that AAHK should carry out regular reviews of the operation phase air quality monitoring results and relevant operation data in order to:

     Monitor the variations in pollutant concentrations and compare these with the operation air quality assessment results presented in the EIA Report;

     Determine the effectiveness of AAHK’s measures and initiatives aimed at further reducing air pollutant emissions from airport activities and operations; and

     Identify follow-up actions and / or further investigation that may be undertaken where necessary with a view to further reducing air emissions associated with the operation of the project. 

2.2.2      Regular Review of Air Quality Monitoring Results

Existing Air Quality Monitoring Stations

2.2.2.1      While the establishment of additional air quality monitoring station was not identified necessary, the EIA Report recommended that the current airport air quality monitoring stations shall be maintained.  These include three air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) operated by AAHK, with one at Sha Chau (SC) and two on the existing airport island, namely the North Station (PH1) and South Station (PH5), as shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/2-002.  The AQMS at Tung Chung (TC) operated by EPD is also shown in the drawing.

2.2.2.2      The PH1 and PH5 stations are positioned on the airport island close to the existing north runway (or the future middle runway after the airport expansion) and the existing south runway respectively; the SC station is over 2.8 km to the north of the expanded airport island; while the TC station is located on the southeast side of the airport island. This network of existing AQMSs is considered to be able to provide representative monitoring data on the air quality on the expanded airport island and its surrounding areas.  Therefore, the AQMSs currently operated by AAHK are to be maintained and the monitoring data obtained from these stations should be used, together with that from the TC AQMS operated by EPD, for regular reviews of the operation phase air quality.  

2.2.2.3      Table 2.5 summaries the existing AQMSs operated by AAHK.

Table 2.5:         Operational Air Quality Monitoring

Station ID

Station Name

Location

Operated by

Monitoring Parameters

SC

Sha Chau

Sha Chau

Airport Authority

Conc. of NO2, RSP, FSP, O3, SO2 and CO reported on hourly basis

PH1

North Station

Existing airport island

Airport Authority

Conc. of NO2, RSP, FSP, O3, SO2 and CO reported on hourly basis

PH5

South Station

Existing airport island

Airport Authority

Conc. of NO2, RSP, FSP, O3, SO2 and CO reported on hourly basis

Existing Monitoring Equipment

2.2.2.4      The existing monitoring equipment of NO2, RSP, FSP, O3, SO2 and CO at the three AQMSs operated by AAHK are summarised in Table 2.6. As the equipment may be replaced due to certain period of utilisation, the monitoring equipment shall be reviewed by the ET prior to the monitoring during operational phase of the project.  

Table 2.6:         The Existing Monitoring Equipment Adopted at South Station, North Station and Sha Chau Station

Parameters

Adopted Technique

Existing monitoring equipment

NO2

Gas Phase Chemiluminescence

Ecotech EC9841B / Thermo Scientific 42i

RSP

Drawing air through a filter at a constant rate, continuously weighing the filter and calculating near real-time mass concentrations

TEOM 1405DF Ambient Particulate Monitor

FSP

O3

Non-dispersive ultraviolet (UV) photometer

Thermo Scientific 49i/ Ecotech EC9810B

SO2

Ultraviolet Flourescence

Thermo Scientific 43i/ Ecotech EC9850B

CO

Gas Filter Correlation photometry

Thermo Scientific 48i/ Ecotech EC9830B

Selection of Air Quality Parameters for Review

2.2.2.5      NOx is the key air pollutant associated with airport operations. The source contribution breakdown for the cumulative annual average NO2 impact at the key sensitive areas under the 3RS scenario in the worst assessment year of 2031 presented in Table 5.5.2 of the EIA Report are reproduced in Table 2.7 below.  The dominant emission sources were identified to be from ambient emissions, which contributed in most cases more than 60% of the total NO2 concentrations.  This is followed by proximity infrastructure emissions (10 – 30%) and airport-related emissions (< 10%), except for Sha Lo Wan.

Table 2.7:      Concentration Breakdown for the Cumulative Annual NO2 Impact at the Key Sensitive Area under the 3RS scenario in Year 2031

Area

ASR

Airport Related Emission (µg/ m3)

Proximity Infrastructure Emission (µg/ m3)  

Ambient (µg/ m3)

Cumulative Impact (µg/ m3)

Tung Chung

TC-22

2

9

22

33

Tung Chung West

TC-P7

2

6

22

30

Tung Chung East

TC-P12

2

4

22

28

Sha Lo Wan

SLW-1

12

4

20

36

Tuen Mun[1]

TM-10

2 [1]

9

27

38

Note:

[1] Airport related emission is included in ambient in PATH model for Tuen Mun area

2.2.2.6      Based on the operational air quality assessment findings presented in the EIA Report, NO2 is considered as the key parameter for which the available monitoring data obtained at AAHK’s AQMSs together with that obtained at EPD’s AQMS in TC should be regularly reviewed during the operation phase of the project. The regular review shall also analyse and present the measured NO and NOx concentrations for estimating the pollutant contribution due to airport operations. To be prudent, available monitoring data on RSP and FSP should also be included in the regular reviews.

Frequency of Review

2.2.2.7      It is recommended that the first review of NO2, RSP and FSP monitoring results should be carried out after the first year of operation of 3RS. Regular review should then be carried out at regular interval of at least every five years during the first 20 years of operation of the project. The frequency of the reviews may be subject to changes depending on the review results.

2.2.3      Operational Phase Air Quality Monitoring and Audit Requirements   

2.2.3.1      During the regular review of NO2, RSP and FSP monitoring results, a detailed examination of the temporal and spatial variations of pollutant levels measured at AAHK’s AQMSs shall be presented and the analysis shall also take into consideration the available monitoring data obtained at EPD’s AQMS in TC. With consideration of the available data including those on meteorological conditions (i.e., wind direction, wind speed, temperature, precipitation, etc), the review shall characterise the mean seasonal and diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations, with a view to evaluating the significance of the contribution of air quality impact from airport emissions on the nearby air sensitive receivers. Also, the regular review shall include the compilation of an updated inventory of major emission sources, including emissions from aircraft landing take-off (LTO) cycle, associated with the airport operations. AAHK shall collect the relevant information for development of the latest airport emissions inventory as part of the review.

2.2.3.2      As part of the regular review, the effectiveness of existing measures and initiatives implemented by AAHK aimed at further reducing air pollutant emissions from airport operation shall also be evaluated.  Follow-up actions and/or further investigation work that may be undertaken where necessary with a view to further reducing air emissions associated with the operation of the project should be recommended as part of the regular review.

2.2.3.3      The detailed air quality monitoring and auditing requirements should be presented as part of the Airport Operation related Emissions Control Plan that shall be submitted no later than 3 months before the operation of the project in accordance to EP Condition 2.24.

 

3        Hazard to Human Life

3.1             Introduction

3.1.1.1      A hazard identification workshop has been conducted in the EIA Report to identify potential hazards associated with the construction and operation phase of the project. Mitigation measures have also been explored to prevent the hazards from happening and they will be implemented in the project.

3.1.1.2      A hazard assessment has been conducted in the EIA Report which concluded that the risk level for the construction phase is within the acceptable region and mitigation measure is not required. The risk level for the operation phase has been evaluated to be in As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) region and the major risk contributor is aircraft refuelling operation. Practicable and cost effective mitigations have been proposed to reduce the risk of aircraft refuelling operation.

3.2             Recommendation

3.2.1.1      The recommended measures as outlined in the Implementation Schedule included as Appendix C in this EM&A Manual should be implemented to meet the Technical Memorandum on Environmental Impact Assessment Process (EIAO-TM) requirements.

 

4        Noise Impact

4.1      Aircraft Noise Monitoring

4.1.1      Aircraft Noise Monitoring and Audit Requirements

4.1.1.1      As per the requirements set out in Section 7, Appendix C of the EIA Study Brief, the aircraft noise monitoring and audit plan shall:

     Provide data and information for verifying predictions on the effectiveness of measures to mitigate aircraft noise impact of the project;

     Formulate audit requirements, including any necessary compliance and post-project audit program, in order to review the monitoring data and identify any remedial works, as necessary, required to address unacceptable or unanticipated aircraft noise impacts; and

     Provide tools, procedures and supplementary information, including noise descriptor and flight tracks, which are useful and relevant for communicating the aircraft noise of the project to the general public.

4.1.1.2      The Procedures for Mitigation of Aircraft Noise that shall be submitted no later than 3 months before the operation of the project in accordance to EP Condition 2.21.

4.1.2      Program Elements

4.1.2.1      Taking into account the EIA Study Brief requirements as described above, it is proposed that the aircraft noise monitoring and audit plan should consist of the following key elements:

     An exercise by AAHK to verify predictions on the effectiveness of measures to mitigate aircraft noise impact and the preparation of a Prediction Verification Report;

     Review Report, prepared on an annual basis by AAHK, for detailing the compliance with noise abatement procedures and unanticipated events, as well as any further necessary investigation and/or remedial action(s); and

     Noise Contour Report, prepared in at least every five years by AAHK, to compare actual airport operation to forecast airport operation with respect to aircraft noise, taking into account data collected on actual aircraft operational levels, fleet mix, runway and flight track utilizations; and produce an updated noise contour using the most currently available and internationally accepted noise modelling methodology.

4.1.2.2      In additional to the above reporting requirements, AAHK shall continue to engage with the neighbouring communities in the vicinity of HKIA, other stakeholders and interested parties on aircraft noise issues associated with the operation of the project.

4.1.3      Prediction Verification

4.1.3.1      The purpose of this task is for verification of predictions on the effectiveness of measures to mitigate aircraft noise impact of the project. This verification exercise shall be undertaken upon availability of relevant airport operation data for the first full year operation of the third runway of the project. A Prediction Verification Report, certified by the ETL and verified by the IEC, shall be submitted to EPD for approval.

4.1.3.2      As part of the prediction verification exercise, AAHK should collect radar data showing airport and flight operations for the first full year operation of the proposed third runway from Civil Aviation Department (CAD).  Based on the radar data collected, the AAHK should carry out aircraft noise contour simulation.  Similar approach adopted to process radar data for the prevailing scenario contour as presented in Chapter 7 of the EIA Report might be applied (individual radar data be pre-processed and annual daily average noise contours be produced by Integrated Noise Model (INM) for daily results) and the detailed methodology shall be agreed with EPD.  The computational model to be used shall also be agreed with EPD prior to the analysis.

4.1.3.3      The Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) 25 contour prepared based on radar data should be compared against the noise contours presented in Chapter 7 of the EIA Report for verifying the effectiveness of measures to mitigate the aircraft noise impact of the project.  If the comparison of contours shows a reasonable converge, this would imply the aircraft noise prediction by computer simulation with forecast, assumptions and proposal of mitigation measures would reliably reflect that by actual airport and flight operations.  In case discrepancies are observed, explanation shall be given and analysed as part of the Prediction Verification Report.

4.1.3.4      It shall be noted that the noise contours presented in Chapter 7 of the EIA Report are based on reasonable assumptions and input data including air traffic forecast, runway mode of operation, flight tracks and flight track utilisation, and proposed mitigation measures.  Therefore, whilst it is being compared with the one generated by actual airport and flight operations, variances within reasonable ranges are envisaged and considered acceptable.  Having said that, it is essential to ensure that with the mitigation measures recommended in the EIA Report, no additional noise sensitive receivers should be subject to adverse environmental impact under the requirements of the EIAO-TM.  Detailed examination should be followed especially for those areas with major variances and the underneath rationale(s) will be elaborated.

4.1.4      Review Report

4.1.4.1      The Review Report, prepared on an annual basis by AAHK shall include an analysis of how well aircraft flight follow each of the aircraft noise mitigation measures recommended in Chapter 7 of the EIA Report.  Information to be collected shall include available radar data showing airport and flight operations from CAD, and this is to be analysed in terms of flight tracks and runway utilisation for checking the effective implementation of the noise reduction measures. AAHK may make references to available operational noise data collated by the relevant authorities. Wind record in the year should also be collected from HKO.  The Review Report should review the data collected including measured noise levels at representative locations, statistics of flight tracks, flight tracks dispersion and aircraft using proposed mitigation measures and existing noise mitigation measures, etc.    

4.1.4.2      The annual review and reporting process will allow AAHK to measure exactly how it stands compared to predicted operations used in the preparation of the EIA Report. If there are any major variances / discrepancies / abnormalities that are observed during the ongoing process of data collection and analysis for preparation of the annual review when compared with the assumptions / measures adopted in the assessment, early investigation shall be carried out for identification of the possible causes of the variances / discrepancies / abnormalities and whether these would significantly affect the aircraft noise environment.

4.1.5      Noise Contour Report

4.1.5.1      As the aircraft noise impact assessment was undertaken on the basis of projected air traffic movements and estimated fleet mix, it is recommended that at regular intervals of at least every five years during the first 20 operational years of the project, actual flight data obtained from local Air Traffic Control radar systems should be acquired and analysed with a similar aircraft noise modelling methodology to confirm the representativeness of the earlier noise analyses. The first Noise Contour Report shall be prepared upon availability of the airport operation data for the first full year operation of the third runway of the project. In accordance with the requirements set out in Condition 2.22 of the EP, an updated NEF 25 contour shall also be submitted no later than 3 months after a full year of operation of the 3RS project. Similar approach adopted to process radar data for prevailing scenario contour might be applied and the detailed methodology shall be agreed with EPD.

4.1.5.2      At such time that it is determined that the noise contours obtained using actual airport data may start to encroach onto any additional noise sensitive receivers, or when it is considered that there are major deviations from the assumptions adopted in the EIA Report, additional analysis would be necessary to update the NEF 25 contour.  The need and feasibility of introducing additional mitigation measures should also be assessed to ensure that no adverse environmental impact would be resulted from the implementation of the project with respect to aircraft noise.

4.1.6      Community Liaison

4.1.6.1      AAHK has been actively engaging with neighbouring communities in the vicinity of the airport, other stakeholders groups and interested parties to communicate issues and gauge views on aircraft noise and other environmental aspects. Briefings and airport visits are organised to explain subjects including but not limited to flight paths under the planned 3RS and the proposed aircraft noise mitigation measures. These engagement activities will continue after commencement of the project and a community liaison plan that presents details of the planned programme, including proposed communication channels, tools, procedures and supplementary information, including noise descriptor and flight tracks in accordance with Section 7.3, Appendix C of the Study Brief and activities that would facilitate communications with stakeholders on aircraft noise issues, will be developed by AAHK as part of the detailed Aircraft Noise Monitoring and Audit Plan presented in Section 4.1.7 below.

4.1.7      Detailed Aircraft Noise Monitoring and Audit Plan

4.1.7.1      The above subsections set out a clear EM&A framework with respect to aircraft noise.  It is not yet mature to define all the monitoring and audit details as at the course of assessment whilst the EM&A task will only be started with operation commencement of the third runway of the project because computation model and data analysis tools are in rapid evolution nowadays. 

4.1.7.2      Prior to commencement of project operation, a detailed Aircraft Noise Monitoring and Audit (ANM&A) Plan, proposing (i) work programme; (ii) actual data collection; (iii) methodologies / procedures, including proposed computation model, to process data into indicators of measures / assumptions adopted; (iv) quality control and assurance procedure; (v) action / investigation plan if any non-compliance, including associated Action and Limit Levels; (vi) community liaison plan; (vii) relevant proforma forming part of the reports; (viii) any foreseeable uncertainties, etc, should be submitted to EPD for agreement.

4.1.7.3      In accordance with the requirements set out in EP Condition 2.23, the ANM&A Plan shall include information on aircraft noise monitoring at representative locations in Tung Chung, Ma Wan, Tsing Yi, Tsuen Wan, Ting Kau, Siu Lam and Tuen Mun. The ANM&A Plan shall make use of available aircraft noise and flight track monitoring data including measured noise levels in terms of dB(A) and their distribution, flight tracks, aircraft fleet mix data and other relevant information at the above-mentioned locations. The ANM&A Plan shall also include an action plan, as approved by Director-General of Civil Aviation, to review the noise data to assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures and to take appropriate action with reference to the prevailing internationally recognised standards in aircraft noise mitigation.

4.1.7.4      Before submission to the Director of Environmental Protection for approval, the ANM&A Plan shall be certified by the ETL and verified by the IEC as conforming to the information and recommendations described in the EIA Report, and taking into account any specific requirements with respect to the latest in-situ conditions of the project. 

4.1.7.5      When developing the detailed plan, references should be made to relevant international guidelines such as SAE ARP4721 Part 1 – Monitoring Aircraft Noise and Operations in the Vicinity of Airports: System Description, Acquisition, and Operation, if applicable, for the purpose of review and describe the project operation. The latest monitoring and audit practice / presentation adopted by similar international airports should be reviewed and reference during the course of preparation of this detailed plan. 

4.2      Fixed Noise Sources Monitoring

4.2.1      Maximum Permissible Sound Power Levels of Fixed Plant

4.2.1.1      The maximum permissible sound power levels of the identified fixed noise sources of the project were predicted in the EIA Report.  The specified sound power levels should be implemented and refined by the Contractor as appropriate to ensure that the noise impact associated with the fixed plant operations would comply with the noise standards stipulated in the EIAO-TM and Noise Control Ordinance (NCO).

4.2.2      Commissioning Test

4.2.2.1      Prior to the operation of the project, the Contractor should conduct noise commissioning tests for all major fixed plant noise sources (excluding the ground noise sources associated with the aircraft taxiing and the operation of auxiliary power units (APUs)) within HKIA to ensure the noise emission at the fixed plant noise source comply with the EIA Report assessed scenario. The test should be carried out by a qualified person possessing at least seven years of noise control experience and a corporate membership of Hong Kong Institute of Acoustics or equivalent.  The noise commissioning test report should be submitted to the AAHK / PM, ET and IEC for approval. The ET and IEC should review design changes to ensure the cumulative noise impact from fixed noise sources comply with the EIA Report assessed scenario. 

4.2.2.2      Noise commissioning tests are also required for noise enclosure of aircraft engine run-up facilities. ISO 10847 – In-situ determination of insertion loss of outdoor noise barriers of all types shall be employed to ensure the required noise reduction (insertion loss) in the EIA Report (at least 15 dB(A)) would be achieved. The test should be carried out by a qualified person possessing at least seven years of noise control experience and a corporate membership of Hong Kong Institute of Acoustics or equivalent.  The noise commissioning test report should be submitted to the AAHK / PM, ET and IEC for approval.

4.2.2.3      No adverse noise impacts are anticipated from aircraft taxiing and APU operation, hence no environmental monitoring and audit is proposed.

4.2.3      Mitigation Measures

4.2.3.1      The relevant noise mitigation measures have been recommended in the EIA Report.  The implementation schedule of the mitigation measures is given in Appendix C.

4.3      Construction Airborne Noise Monitoring

4.3.1      Noise Parameter

4.3.1.1      The construction noise level should be measured in terms of the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq). Leq(30 minutes) should be used as the monitoring parameter for the time period between 0700-1900 hours on normal weekdays. For all other time periods, a Construction Noise Permit (CNP) under the NCO would apply.

4.3.1.2      As supplementary information for data auditing, statistical results such as L10 and L90 should also be obtained for reference. A sample data record sheet based on the one presented in the “EM&A Guidelines for Development Projects in Hong Kong” is shown in Appendix B for reference.

4.3.2      Monitoring Equipment

4.3.2.1      As referred to in the Technical Memorandum (TM) issued under the NCO, sound level meters in compliance with the International Electrotechnical Commission Publications 651:1979 (Type 1) and 804:1985 (Type 1) specifications should be used for carrying out the noise monitoring. Immediately prior to and following each noise measurement the accuracy of the sound level meter should be checked using an acoustic calibrator generating a known sound pressure level at a known frequency. Measurements may be accepted as valid only if the calibration level from before and after the nose measurement agrees to within 1.0 dB.

4.3.2.2      Noise measurements should be made in accordance with standard acoustical principles and practices in relation to weather conditions. Handheld wind meter should be used for measuring and checking the wind speed (in m/s) during the noise monitoring.

4.3.2.3      The ET is responsible for the availability of monitoring equipment and should ensure that sufficient noise measuring equipment and associated instrumentation are available for carrying out the baseline monitoring, regular impact monitoring and ad hoc monitoring. All the equipment and associated instrumentation should be clearly labelled.

4.3.3      Monitoring Locations

Technical Specifications as Presented in the Original EM&A Manual

4.3.3.1      The noise monitoring locations are summarised in Table 4‑1. The status and locations of noise sensitive receivers may change after issuing this manual. If such case exists, the ET should propose updated monitoring locations and seek approval from the AAHK / PM and agreement from the IEC and EPD of the proposal.

Table 4‑1:         Construction Noise Monitoring Stations

ID

ID adopted in EIA

Description

NM1

TC-1

Seaview Crescent Block 1

NM2

TC-5

Tung Chung West Development (Monitoring to start after occupation of development in 2023/24, subject to the construction programme of the project)

NM3

TC-30

Ho Yu College

NM4

TC-37

Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

NM5

TS-1

House, Tin Sum

NM6

SLW-1

House No. 1, Sha Lo Wan

4.3.3.2      When alternative monitoring locations are proposed, the monitoring locations should be chosen based on the following criteria:

     Monitoring at sensitive receivers close to the major site activities which are likely to have noise impacts;

     Monitoring at the noise sensitive receivers as defined in the Technical Memorandum; and

     Assurance of minimal disturbance to the occupants during monitoring.

4.3.3.3      The monitoring station should normally be at a point 1 m from the exterior of the sensitive receivers building facade and be at position 1.2 m above the ground. If there is a problem with access to the normal monitoring position, an alternative position may be chosen, and a correction to the measurements should be made. For reference, a correction of +3 dB(A) should be made to the free field measurements. The ET should agree with the IEC on the monitoring position and the corrections adopted. Once the positions for the monitoring stations are chosen, the baseline monitoring and the impact monitoring should be carried out at the same positions.

Updated Monitoring Locations

4.3.3.4      Based on the provisions and requirements set out in Sections 4.3.3.1 and 4.3.3.2 above, a change in monitoring location was proposed for NM1, NM2 and NM3.  Agreement from the AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD’s approval were obtained for the changes. The locations of the alternative monitoring stations, including NM1A, NM2* and NM3A, are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/4-001. The locations of the originally proposed monitoring locations (NM1, NM2 and NM3) are also shown in the same drawing for easy reference. 

4.3.3.5      Table 4‑2 summarises the updated locations of the construction noise monitoring stations.

4.3.3.6      A change of noise monitoring locations in both the baseline and subsequent impact monitoring for NM1 and NM3 was identified necessary as access was not granted for setting up the onsite monitoring station at these locations.  For NM1, the new monitoring location NM1A proposed is situated in close proximity to Seaview Crescent with similar view angle to the 3RS project site and is also considered to be a representative location for monitoring the construction phase noise impact from the project. For NM3, the baseline and impact monitoring station is proposed to be conducted at the northern edge of the reclaimed land (NM3A) as an alternative monitoring station.  As there are new residential developments including Century Link and The Visionary that will become occupied and this would block part of the view of the school to the 3RS project site, the new monitoring location proposed at NM3A is considered to be a suitable location for the construction noise monitoring. 

4.3.3.7      On the other hand, NM2* was proposed to represent the future Tung Chung West Development which has not yet been constructed. Therefore, baseline noise monitoring is proposed to be undertaken at Tung Chung Battery (NM2*), which is located near the northern end of Tung Chung road overlooking the 3RS project site. When the future residential buildings in Tung Chung West Development become occupied, the impact monitoring would be carried out at a representative location with noise sensitive land uses and the exact location will be proposed by the ET for agreement with the IEC and EPD prior to commencement of the impact monitoring.

Table 4‑2:         Construction Noise Monitoring Stations

ID

ID adopted in EIA

Description

NM1A(1)

-

Man Tung Road Park

NM2*(1) / NM2

TC-5

Tung Chung Battery* /

Tung Chung West Development (Monitoring to start after occupation of development in 2023/24, subject to the construction programme of the project)

NM3A(1)

-

Site Office at the northern edge of the reclaimed land

NM4

TC-37

Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

NM5

TS-1

House, Tin Sum

NM6

SLW-1

House No. 1, Sha Lo Wan

Note: (1) alternative noise monitoring location

4.3.4      Baseline Monitoring

4.3.4.1      The ET should carry out baseline noise monitoring prior to the commencement of the project-related construction activities. The baseline monitoring should be carried out daily for a period of at least two weeks. The commencement date of baseline monitoring shall be agreed between the ET / IEC / AAHK / PM to ensure timely submission of the baseline monitoring report to EPD. Before commencing the baseline monitoring, the ET should develop and submit to the IEC the baseline monitoring programme such that the IEC can conduct on-site audit to check accuracy of the baseline monitoring results.

4.3.4.2      There should not be any construction activities in the vicinity of the stations during the baseline monitoring.

4.3.4.3      In exceptional cases, when insufficient baseline monitoring data or questionable results are obtained, the ET should liaise with the AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD to agree on an appropriate set of data to be used as a baseline reference and submit to the AAHK / PM and IEC for agreement and EPD for approval.

4.3.5      Impact Monitoring

4.3.5.1      Noise monitoring should be carried out at all the designated monitoring stations when there are project-related construction activities undertaken. The monitoring frequency should depend on the scale of the construction activities. The following is an initial guide on the regular monitoring frequency for each station on a weekly basis when noise generating activities are underway:

     One set of measurements between 0700-1900 hours on normal weekdays.

4.3.5.2      If construction works are extended to include works during the hours of 1900-0700 as well as public holidays and Sundays, additional impact monitoring (including monitoring locations) during respective periods of restricted hours should be subject to the CNP requirements by EPD. Applicable permits under NCO should also be obtained by the Contractor.

4.3.5.3      For schools located near the HKIA (e.g. NM4), noise monitoring should be carried out at the monitoring stations for the schools during the school examination periods. The ET should liaise with the school’s personnel and the Examination Authority to ascertain the exact dates and times of all examination periods during the course of the contract.

4.3.5.4      In case of non-compliance with the construction noise criteria, more frequent monitoring, as specified in the Event and Action Plan in Table 4‑4, should be carried out. This additional monitoring should be continued until the recorded noise levels are rectified or proved to be irrelevant to the construction activities.

4.3.6      Event and Action Plan for Noise

4.3.6.1      The Action and Limit Levels for construction noise are defined in Table 4‑3. Should non-compliance of the criteria occur, action in accordance with the Event and Action Plan in Table 4‑4, should be carried out.

Table 4‑3:         Action and Limit Levels for Construction Noise

Time Period

Action

Limit

0700-1900 hours on normal weekdays

When one valid documented complaint is received.

75* dB(A)

Note:      * reduce to 70 dB(A) for schools and 65 dB(A) during school examination periods.

Table 4‑4:         Event and Action Plan for Construction Noise

 

Action

Event

ET

IEC

AAHK / PM

Contractor

Action Level

1. Notify AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

2. Carry out investigation;

3. Report the results of investigation to the AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

4. Discuss with IEC and Contractor on remedial measures required;

5. Increase monitoring frequency to check mitigation effectiveness.

1. Review the investigation results submitted by the ET;

2. Review the proposed remedial measures by the Contractor and advise the AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Advise AAHK / PM on the effectiveness of the proposed remedial measures.

1. Confirm receipt of notification of failure in writing;

2. Notify Contractor;

3. In consolidation with IEC, agree with the Contractor on the remedial measures to be implemented;

4. Supervise the implementation of remedial measures.

1. Submit noise mitigation proposals to AAHK / PM and IEC;

2. Implement noise mitigation proposals.

Limit Level

1. Inform AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

2. Repeat measurements to confirm findings;

3. Inform EPD after confirming the validity of exceedance;

4. Increase monitoring frequency;

5. Identify source and investigate the cause of exceedance;

6. Carry out analysis of Contractor’s working procedures;

7. Discus with AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor on remedial measures required;

8. Assess effectiveness of Contractor’s remedial actions and keep AAHK / PM, IEC and EPD informed of the results;

9. If exceedance stops, cease additional monitoring.

1. Discuss amongst AAHK / PM, ET and Contractor on the potential remedial actions;

2. Review contractor’s remedial actions whenever necessary to assure their effectiveness and advise AAHK / PM accordingly.

1. Confirm receipt of notification of failure in writing;

2. Notify Contractor;

3. In consolidation with IEC, agree with the Contractor on the remedial measures to be implemented;

4. Supervise the implementation of remedial measures;

5. If exceedance continues, consider stopping the Contractor to continue working on that portion of work which causes the exceedance until the exceedance is abated.

1. Take immediate action to avoid further exceedance;

2. Submit proposals for remedial actions to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days of notification;

3. Implement the agreed proposals;

4. Submit further proposal if problem still not under control;

5. Stop the relevant portion of works as instructed by AAHK / PM until the exceedance is abated.

4.3.7      Mitigation Measures

4.3.7.1      Recommended construction noise control and mitigation measures are proposed in the EIA Report. The Contractor should be responsible for the design and implementation of these measures under the supervision of the AAHK / PM and be monitored by the ET. The implementation schedule of the recommended noise mitigation measures is presented in Appendix C.

4.4      Road Traffic and Marine Traffic Noise Monitoring

4.4.1.1      No adverse road or marine traffic noise impacts are anticipated from operation of the project, hence no environmental monitoring and audit is proposed.

 

5        Water Quality Impact

5.1      Construction Water Quality Monitoring

5.1.1      Introduction

5.1.1.1      The main potential water quality impact during construction phase is the release of suspended solids (SS) during land formation. Water jetting and field joint excavation works for the submarine cable diversion may also generate some SS release. Environmental monitoring for these marine works are described in Section 5.1.8

5.1.1.2      The potential risk of contaminants released from pore water during ground improvement via deep cement mixing (DCM) within the contaminated mud pit areas has also been identified as a concern. While the results of the water quality impact assessment suggests that potential contaminant release from pore water would be insignificant, it is recognised that full scale ground improvement works over the completed and capped contaminated mud pits (CMPs) have not previously been implemented in Hong Kong. Therefore, specific environmental monitoring for the initial DCM activities are included as part of the EM&A requirements and are described in Section 5.1.9.

5.1.2      Water Quality Parameters

5.1.2.1      Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Dissolved Oxygen Saturation (DO%), pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, and SS should be undertaken at all designated monitoring locations. Current speed and direction should also be measured at all monitoring locations except for sensitive receivers that are enclosed or surrounded by silt curtains (namely SR1A and SR8).

5.1.2.2      For monitoring of DCM works, there will be an initial intensive monitoring of DO, DO%, pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, total alkalinity, SS, heavy metals and nutrients at designated DCM-specific monitoring stations. Thereafter, total alkalinity and two representative heavy metals will be monitored at the general monitoring locations.

5.1.2.3      The general and DCM-specific monitoring locations are described in Section 5.1.5. All parameters should be measured in-situ while total alkalinity should be measured on-site and SS, heavy metals and nutrients which should be determined by laboratory. DO should be presented in mg/L and in % saturation.

5.1.2.4      Other relevant data should also be recorded, including monitoring location, time, tidal stages, weather conditions, sea conditions and any special phenomena and work underway at the construction site.

5.1.3      Sampling Procedures and Monitoring Equipment

5.1.3.1      Water samples for all monitoring parameters should be collected, stored, preserved and analysed according to the Standard Methods, APHA 22nd ed. and/or other methods as agreed by the EPD. In-situ measurements at monitoring locations including temperature, DO, turbidity, pH, salinity and water depth should be collected by equipment with the characteristics and functions listed in the following sections.

5.1.3.2      Sample data record sheets based on the one presented in the “EM&A Guidelines for Development Projects in Hong Kong” are shown in Appendix B for reference.

5.1.3.3      The following monitoring equipment and facilities should be provided by the ET.

Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Measuring Equipment

5.1.3.4      The instrument should be portable and weatherproof using a DC power source. It should have a membrane electrode with automatic temperature compensation complete with a cable. The equipment should be capable of measuring:

     A dissolved oxygen level in the range of 0-20 mg/L and 0-200 % saturation; and

     A temperature of 0-45 degree Celsius with a capability of measuring to ±0.1 degree Celsius

pH Measuring Equipment

5.1.3.5      A portable pH meter capable of measuring a range between 0.0 and 14.0 should be provided to measure pH under the specified conditions according to the Standard Methods, APHA.

Turbidity Measurement Instrument

5.1.3.6      The instrument should be portable and weatherproof using a DC power source. It should have a photoelectric sensor capable of measuring turbidity between 0-1000 NTU.

Salinity

5.1.3.7      A portable salinometer capable of measuring salinity in the range of 0-40 ppt should be provided for measuring salinity of the water at each monitoring location.

Total Alkalinity

5.1.3.8      A digital titrator capable of dispensing 0.002ml at one single dispense should be provided to measure the amount of sulphuric acid used in determination of total alkalinity.

Nutrient, Heavy Metals and Suspended Solids (SS)

5.1.3.9      A water sampler comprising a transparent PVC cylinder with a capacity of not less than two litres, and could be effectively sealed with latex cups at both ends, should be used. The sampler should have a positive latching system to keep it open and prevent premature closure until released by a messenger when the sampler is at the selected water depth (e.g. Kahlsico Water Sampler or a similar instrument approved by the AAHK / PM and ET).

5.1.3.10   Water samples for nutrients, heavy metals and SS analysis should be stored in high density polythene bottles with no preservatives added, packed in ice (cooled to 4 şC without being frozen), and delivered to the laboratory within 24 hours of collection.

Water Depth Detector

5.1.3.11   A portable, battery-operated echo sounder should be used for the determination of water depth at each designated monitoring station. The unit would either be handheld or affixed to the bottom of the work boat, if the same vessel is to be used throughout the monitoring programme.

Positioning Device

5.1.3.12   A hand-held or boat-fixed type digital Global Positioning System (dGPS) with way point bearing indication or other equivalent instrument of similar accuracy should be provided and used during monitoring to ensure the monitoring vessel is at the correct location before taking measurements.

Calibration of In-situ Instruments

5.1.3.13   In-situ monitoring instruments for the monitoring of temperature, DO, turbidity, pH and salinity should be checked, calibrated and certified by a laboratory accredited under HOKLAS (or other international accreditation scheme that is HOKLAS-equivalent) before use, and subsequently re-calibrated at three monthly intervals throughout all stages of the water quality monitoring. Responses of sensors and electrodes should be checked with certified standard solutions before use.

5.1.3.14   Wet bulb calibration for the DO meter should be carried out before commencement of monitoring and after completion of all measurements each day. A zero check in distilled water should be performed with the turbidity probe at least once per monitoring day. The probe should then be calibrated with a solution of known NTU. In addition, the turbidity probe should be calibrated at least twice per month to establish the relationship between turbidity readings (in NTU) and levels of suspended solids (in mg/L).  Accuracy check of the digital titrator should be performed at least once per monitoring day.

5.1.3.15   For the on-site calibration of field equipment, the BS 1427:2009, Guide to on-site test methods for the analysis of waters should be observed.

5.1.3.16   Sufficient stocks of spare parts should be maintained for replacements when necessary. Backup monitoring equipment should also be made available so that monitoring can proceed uninterrupted even when some equipment is under maintenance, calibration etc.

5.1.4      Laboratory Measurement / Analysis

5.1.4.1      Analysis of nutrients, heavy metals and SS should be carried out in a HOKLAS laboratory (or other international accredited laboratory that is HOKLAS-equivalent). Sufficient water samples should be collected at the monitoring stations for carrying out the laboratory nutrients, heavy metals and SS determination. The nutrients, heavy metals and SS determination work should start within 24 hours after collection of the water samples. The analysis of nutrients, heavy metals and SS should follow the standard methods summarised in Table 5‑1.

Table 5‑1:         Laboratory Analysis for SS, Nutrients and Heavy Metals

Parameters

Instrumentation

Analytical Method

Reporting Limit

Suspended Solid (SS)

Analytical Balance

APHA 2540D

2 mg/L

Nutrients

 

 

 

Ammonia as N

FIA

APHA 4500

0.01 mg/L

Unionised ammonia (NH3)*

By calculation

By calculation

By calculation

Nitrite as N

FIA

APHA 4500

0.01 mg/L

Nitrate as N

FIA

APHA 4500

0.01 mg/L

TKN as N

Titration

APHA 4500

0.1 mg/L

Total Phosphorus

Colorimetric

APHA 4500

0.01 mg/L

Reactive Phosphorus

FIA

APHA 4500

0.01 mg/L

Heavy Metals

 

 

 

Cadmium (Cd)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.1 µg/L

Chromium (Cr)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.2 µg/L

Copper (Cu)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.2 µg/L

Nickel (Ni)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.2 µg/L

Lead (Pb)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.2 µg/L

Zinc (Zn)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

1 µg/L

Arsenic (As)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

1 µg/L

Silver (Ag)

ICP-MS

USEPA 6020A

0.1 µg/L

Mercury (Hg)

ICP-MS

APHA 7470A

0.05 µg/L

Note:

* Calculation based on the laboratory result of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and in-situ measured pH, salinity and temperature.

5.1.4.2      If in-house or non-standard methods are proposed, details of the method verification should, if required, be submitted to EPD. In any circumstances, the sample testing should have comprehensive quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programmes. The laboratory should be prepared to demonstrate the QC programmes to EPD or their representative if and when required.

5.1.4.3      Additional duplicate samples may be required by EPD for inter laboratory calibration. Remaining samples after analysis should be kept by the laboratory for three months in case repeat analysis is required.

5.1.4.4      If a site laboratory is set up or a non-HOKLAS and non-international accredited laboratory is hired for carrying out the laboratory analysis, the laboratory equipment, analytical procedures, and QC shall be approved by EPD.  All the analysis shall be witnessed by the AAHK / PM.  The ETL shall provide the AAHK / PM and IEC with one copy of the relevant chapters of the “APHA Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater” 22nd edition and any other relevant document for their reference.

5.1.5      Monitoring Locations

General Monitoring Locations

5.1.5.1      A total of 25 water quality monitoring locations (comprising 14 impact stations, eight sensitive receiver stations and three control stations) have been proposed for the construction and post-construction phases. The coordinates are shown in Table 5‑2 and the locations are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/5-001 and MCL/P132/EMA/5-002b. The final locations and number of monitoring points should be agreed with EPD at least two weeks before undertaking any works.

Table 5‑2:         Water Quality Monitoring Stations (baseline and impact monitoring)

Monitoring Stations

 

Coordinates

Parameters

 

 

Description

Easting

Northing

Baseline Monitoring

Impact Monitoring (excl. intensive DCM)

Construction Activities Monitored

C1

Control

804247

815620

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

DCM Parameters

Total Alkalinity, Two Representative Heavy Metals

 

General Parameters

From commencement of advance marine works (submarine 11 kV cable diversion) until completion of all marine filling works for land formation

DCM Parameters

From commencement until completion of all marine-based DCM works

C2

Control

806945

825682

C3(1)

Control

817803

822109

SR2(1)

Planned marine park / hard corals at The Brothers / Tai Mo To

814166

821463

IM1

Impact

806458

818351

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

Total Alkalinity

 

 

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

DCM Parameters

Total Alkalinity, Two Representative Heavy Metals

General Parameters

From commencement of land formation until completion of all marine filling works

DCM Parameters

From commencement until completion of all marine-based DCM works

IM7

Impact

806835

821349

IM2

Impact

806193

818852

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

Total Alkalinity

 

 

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

DCM Parameters

Total Alkalinity, Two Representative Heavy Metals

 

General Parameters

From commencement of land formation until completion of nearest 1 km of seawall

DCM Parameters

From commencement until completion of all marine-based DCM works

IM3

Impact

806019

819411

IM4

Impact

805039

819570

IM5

Impact

804924

820564

IM6

Impact

805828

821060

IM8

Impact

807838

821695

IM9*

Impact

808811

822094

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS, Total Alkalinity, Heavy metals and Nutrients

 

General Parameters

From commencement of land formation until completion of nearest 1 km of seawall

DCM Parameters

From commencement until completion of all marine-based DCM works

IM12*

Impact

811519

821162

IM10*

Impact

809838

822240

General Parameters

From commencement of land formation until completion of all marine filling works

DCM Parameters

From commencement until completion of all marine-based DCM works

IM11*

Impact

810545

821501

IM13

Impact (for submarine 11 kV cable diversion)

Mobile station (500 m envelope of water jetting works)

n/a

General Parameters only

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

General Parameters only

From commencement until completion of water jetting works

IM14

Impact (for submarine 11 kV cable diversion)

Mobile station (500 m envelope of field joint excavation works)

General Parameters only

From commencement until completion of field joint excavation works

SR1A(2)(3)

Future Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) Seawater Intake for cooling

812586

820069

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

General Parameters only

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

General Parameters only

From commencement of advance marine works (submarine 11 kV cable diversion) until completion of all marine filling works for land formation

SR3

Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park / fishing and spawning grounds in North Lantau

807571

822147

SR4A(3)

Sha Lo Wan

807810

817189

SR5A(3)

San Tau Beach SSSI

810696

816593

SR6

Tai Ho Bay, Near Tai Ho Stream SSSI

814663

817899

SR7

Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone (FCZ)

823742

823636

SR84

Seawater Intake for cooling at Hong Kong International Airport (East)

811593

820417

(up to end May 2017)

 

811418

820246

(from end May 2017 onwards)

Notes:

* Denotes monitoring stations for providing baseline nutrient and heavy metal data for DCM-specific monitoring

(1) According to the Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report, C3 station is not adequately representative as a control station of impact/ SR stations during the flood tide. The control reference has been changed from C3 to SR2 from 1 September 2016 onwards.

(2) The seawater intakes of SR1A for the future HKBCF is not yet in operation. The future permanent location for SR1A during impact monitoring is subject to finalisation after the HKBCF seawater is commissioned.

(3) The monitoring locations for SR1, SR4 and SR5 have been updated (to SR1A, SR4A and SR5A) based on the Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report.

(4) The monitoring location for SR8 is subject to further changes due to silt curtain arrangements and the progressive relocation of this seawater intake.

5.1.5.2      For SR8, the monitoring location has been modified slightly due to the installation of localised silt curtains which are required for protecting this sensitive receiver. To ensure the water quality monitoring at this location is able to represent the water quality at the seawater intake, the monitoring location will be moved closer to the intakes and within the area protected by the localised silt curtain. The previous monitoring locations are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/5-002a.

5.1.5.3      For submarine 11 kV cable diversion works, two specific impact stations (IM13 and IM14) are proposed for the construction phase. These impact stations will be mobile stations located within a 500 m envelope of the respective water jetting / field joint excavation works. The indicative areas are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/5-001. Exact locations will depend on the tidal conditions (i.e. the impact station should always be downstream of the respective water jetting / field joint excavation works).  In case where relocation of the impact stations is required, a minimum of 2 mobile impact stations at representative locations should be proposed by ET and approved by the AAHK / PM and IEC.

5.1.5.4      The status and locations of water sensitive receivers may change after issuing this Manual. If such case exists, the ETL should propose updated monitoring locations and seek approval from the IEC and EPD.  The selection of these locations should follow the below criteria:

     Impact (IM) stations should be within the 500 m envelope of construction works;

     Sensitive receivers (SR) stations should be at close proximity to key sensitive receivers; and

     Control stations (C), as far as practicable, should be at representative locations of the water body being monitored while undisturbed by the project.

DCM-Specific Monitoring Locations

5.1.5.5      For the initial intensive DCM-specific water quality monitoring programme, monitoring should be conducted within 3 months of commencement of actual full scale DCM works and as soon as there are five DCM rigs working within a work front of 500m x 500m within the CMPs. Details of the DCM-specific water quality monitoring programme are specified in the Detailed Plan on DCM. A total of 12 monitoring stations will be deployed with the following arrangement:

                    i.      Two monitoring stations upstream and at 150 m envelope of DCM group works area (Control stations);

                   ii.      Five monitoring stations downstream and at 150 m envelope of DCM group works area (Impact 1 stations);

                  iii.      Five monitoring stations downstream and at 250 m envelope of DCM group works area (Impact 2 stations);

                  iv.       Monitoring stations should be at least 50 m apart; and

                   v.       Downstream monitoring stations should be perpendicular to the tidal direction.

5.1.5.6      Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/5-003 shows an indicative arrangement for the DCM work front.

5.1.5.7      After completion of the initial intensive DCM-specific water quality monitoring programme, DCM monitoring locations will revert to the general (control and impact) monitoring locations presented in Table 5‑2.

5.1.6      Baseline Monitoring

5.1.6.1      Baseline conditions for water quality shall be established and agreed with EPD prior to the commencement of works. The purpose of the baseline monitoring is to establish ambient conditions prior to the commencement of the marine works and to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed impact and control monitoring stations. The baseline conditions shall be established by measuring DO, DO%, pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, and SS at all designated stationary monitoring stations. To provide the baseline water quality for the DCM-specific monitoring, total alkalinity shall be measured at all the relevant stationary impact stations, plus nutrients and heavy metals at the “IM*” stations (which represent the contaminated mud pit locations). The measurements should be taken three days per week, at mid-flood and mid-ebb tides, for at least four weeks prior to the commencement of marine works. Samples should be taken at three depths (at 1m below surface, at mid-depth, and at 1m above bottom) for locations with water depth >6m. For locations with water depth between 3m and 6m, two depths (surface and bottom) should be taken. Locations with water depth <3m, only surface depth should be taken. The commencement date of baseline monitoring shall be agreed between the ET / IEC / AAHK / PM to ensure timely submission of the baseline monitoring report to EPD. Duplicate water samples should be taken and analysed.

5.1.6.2      As far as possible there should not be any marine construction activities in the vicinity of the stations during the baseline monitoring.

5.1.6.3      In exceptional cases when insufficient baseline monitoring data or questionable results are obtained, the ET should seek approval from the IEC and EPD on an appropriate set of data to be used as baseline reference.

5.1.6.4      Baseline monitoring schedule should be faxed to EPD at least two weeks prior to the commencement of baseline monitoring. The interval between two sets of monitoring should be not less than 36 hours.

5.1.7      Efficiency of Silt Curtain System

5.1.7.1      Type II and/or Type III silt curtains have been recommended in the EIA Report. These are to be implemented as a double layer arrangement. Details of the silt curtain arrangements and the pilot test on the efficiency of the silt curtain system are specified in the Silt Curtain Deployment Plan. The ET should conduct tests to confirm that the silt curtain system specified in the Silt Curtain Deployment Plan satisfies the requirements in the EIA Report.

5.1.7.2      A pilot test should be carried out during the early stage of construction to confirm whether the silt removal efficiency of the double layer floating type silt curtains can achieve 61 % silt removal efficiency for sand blanket laying and marine filling activities. The pilot test should be undertaken during the highest current speed condition (covering both flood and ebb tide) and include measurements of current speed and direction, turbidity and suspended solids. The water quality monitoring points to be selected should be close to the locations of the marine works. Monitoring should be conducted on both sides of the silt curtains deployed. If the pilot test is conducted in dry season, a verification test should be carried out during wet season at the highest current speed condition to re-confirm the findings. The details for the pilot test should be proposed by the ET and agreed with the IEC and EPD, taking into account of the Contractor’s proposed actual locations of the works.

5.1.7.3      Regardless of the measured efficiency of the silt curtain system, the Event and Action Plan should only be based on the monitoring results at the designated stationary monitoring stations.

5.1.8      General Impact Monitoring

5.1.8.1      During marine construction works, impact monitoring should be undertaken at all designated monitoring stations three days per week (refer to Table 5‑2 for the activities to be monitored). Monitoring should be undertaken at mid-flood (within ± 1.75 hour of the predicted time) and mid-ebb (within ± 1.75 hour of the predicted time) tides. Samples should be taken at three depths (at 1m below surface, at mid-depth, and at 1m above bottom) for locations with water depth >6m. For locations with water depth between 3m and 6m, two depths (surface and bottom) should be taken. Locations with water depth <3 m, only surface depth should be taken. The interval between two sets of monitoring should be not less than 36 hours except when the Action Level and/or Limit Level is/are exceeded, in which case the monitoring frequency may be increased.  For DCM impact monitoring, please refer to Section 5.1.9.

5.1.8.2      Two consecutive measurements of DO concentrations (mg/L), DO saturation (%) and turbidity (NTU) should be taken in-situ according to the stated sampling method. Where the difference in value between the first and second measurement of DO or turbidity parameters is more than 25 % of the value of the first reading, the reading should be discarded and further readings would be taken. Water samples for SS (mg/L) measurements should be collected at the same depths. Duplicate water samples should be taken and analysed.

5.1.8.3      In addition to the above in-situ measurements, water temperature and pH should be determined at all designated monitoring stations at the same depths, as specified above. The monitoring location / position, time, weather conditions and any special phenomena should also be recorded.

5.1.9      DCM Impact Monitoring

Initial Intensive DCM Monitoring

5.1.9.1      According to the current design, DCM would be conducted within the CMPs during land formation. As specified in the Detailed Plan for DCM, within 3 months of the commencement of full-scale DCM works and as soon as there are five DCM rigs working within a work front of 500 m x 500 m within the CMPs, the ET is required to conduct an initial intensive DCM-specific water quality monitoring programme for a period of at least four weeks to ensure that the criteria for various contaminants are complied. This would be conducted for a group of five DCM rigs as specified in Section 5.1.5.5.

5.1.9.2      Daily monitoring at mid-flood (within ± 1.75 hour of the predicted time) and mid-ebb (within ± 1.75 hour of the predicted time) tides is required during the initial intensive DCM monitoring as shown in Chart 5-1. Samples should be taken at three depths (at 1m below surface, at mid-depth, and at 1 m above bottom) for locations with water depth >6m. For locations with water depth between 3 m and 6 m, two depths (surface and bottom) should be taken. Locations with water depth <3m, only surface depth should be taken.

5.1.9.3      Two consecutive measurements of DO, DO%, pH, temperature (oC), turbidity (NTU), and salinity (ppt) should be taken in-situ according to the stated sampling method. Water samples for total alkalinity (ppm), SS (mg/L), nutrients (mg/L) and heavy metals (µg/L) measurements should be collected at the same depths. Monitoring parameters for nutrients and heavy metals include those listed in Table 5‑1. Duplicate water samples should be taken and analysed. If no exceedance is recorded within two weeks, then the monitoring frequency can be reduced to every two days. If no exceedance is recorded after another two weeks, the initial intensive DCM specific monitoring will be terminated and DCM monitoring will continue as part of the regular DCM monitoring.

Chart 5‑1:         Flow Chart for DCM Monitoring

* During regular DCM monitoring, exceedances for total alkalinity and the two representative heavy metals should be confirmed by ET and verified by the IEC as project-related.

Regular DCM Monitoring

5.1.9.4      After completion of the initial intensive DCM monitoring, regular DCM monitoring will be conducted as part of the general impact monitoring presented in Section 5.1.8 for the remaining duration of the DCM works. During this period, total alkalinity and two representative heavy metals will be monitored at all stationary control and impact monitoring stations as specified in Table 5‑2. The two representative heavy metals shall be proposed by the ET taking into account the findings of the initial intensive DCM monitoring. The selection criteria for determining the representative heavy metals should include but not limited to the following:

     Low natural (baseline) concentrations in the marine environment

     Present in elevated concentrations in the CMPs (based on past vibrocores taken from the CMPs)

     Concentrations in the CMPs should be higher than in non- contaminated mud pit areas; and

     Not associated with strong temporal variations and/or external influences (e.g. Pearl River Delta discharges, construction activities by concurrent projects)

5.1.9.5      Two consecutive measurements of total alkalinity (ppm) should be taken according to the stated sampling and analysis method, and laboratory water samples for heavy metals (µg/L) measurements should be collected at the same depths. Duplicate water samples should be taken and analysed.

5.1.9.6      During this regular DCM monitoring period, if there is any exceedance of the Limit Levels for total alkalinity and the two representative heavy metals for two consecutive sampling days and such exceedance is confirmed by the ET (with verification by the IEC) to be a result of the DCM works, intensive DCM monitoring will be re-initiated as shown in Chart 5-1. Monitoring parameters during the intensive DCM monitoring will be the same as those conducted for the initial intensive DCM monitoring until such time as no further exceedances are detected and regular DCM monitoring resumes.

5.1.10    Post-Construction Monitoring

5.1.10.1   Upon completion of all marine construction works, a post project water quality monitoring exercise should be carried out for four weeks, in the same manner as the impact monitoring during construction phase.

5.1.11    Event and Action Plan for Water Quality

5.1.11.1   The Action Level and Limit Level for water quality (excluding sensitive receiver stations representing seawater intakes) are defined in Table 5‑3.

Table 5‑3:         Action and Limit Levels for Water Quality

Parameters

Action Level

Limit Level

DO in mg/L

(Surface, Middle & Bottom)

Surface and Middle

5 percentile of baseline data for surface and middle layer

Surface and Middle

5 mg/L or 1 percentile of baseline data for surface and middle layer for Fish Culture Zone (SR7)

4 mg/L or 1 percentile of baseline data for surface and middle layer for other stations

Bottom

5 percentile of baseline data for bottom layer

Bottom

2 mg/L or 1 percentile of baseline data for bottom layer

Temperature in °C

(for intensive DCM monitoring only)

1.8°C above the temperature recorded at representative control stations at the same tide of the same day

2°C above the temperature recorded at representative control stations at the same tide of the same day

SS in mg/L

95 percentile of baseline data or 120% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

99 percentile of baseline data or 130% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

Turbidity in NTU

Total Alkalinity in ppm

Nutrient

Ammonia (NH3)

Unionised ammonia (NH3)

(with 0.021 mg/L as the upper limit)

Nitrite (NO2)

Nitrate (NO3)

TKN

Total Phosphorus

Reactive Phosphorus

Heavy Metals

Cadmium (Cd)

Chromium (Cr)

Copper (Cu)

Nickel (Ni)

Lead (Pb)

Zinc (Zn)

Arsenic (As)

Silver (Ag)

Mercury (Hg)

Notes:   

1.     For DO measurement, non-compliance occurs when monitoring result is lower than the limits.

2.     For parameters other than DO, non-compliance of water quality results when monitoring results is higher than the limits.

3.     Depth-averaged results are used unless specified otherwise.

4.     All the figures given in the table are used for reference only and the EPD may amend the figures whenever necessary.

5.     For all mobile impact stations, the baseline data will be represented by the nearest stationary monitoring station.

5.1.11.2   The Action Level and Limit Level for water quality impact monitoring have been established and presented in the Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report. The summary tables of the Action Level and Limit Level for water quality are presented in Table 5‑4 and Table 5‑5.

Table 5‑4:         Action and Limit Levels for General Impact Water Quality Monitoring and Regular DCM Monitoring

Parameters

Action Level

Limit Level

DO in mg/L

(Surface, Middle & Bottom)

Surface and Middle

4.5 mg/L

Surface and Middle

4.1 mg/L

5 mg/L for Fish Culture Zone (SR7) only

Bottom

3.4 mg/L

Bottom

2.7 mg/L

Suspended Solids (SS) in mg/L

23

or 120% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

37

or 130% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

Turbidity in NTU

22.6

36.1

Total Alkalinity in ppm

95

99

Representative Heavy Metals for regular DCM monitoring after completion of initial intensive DCM monitoring

(to be determined taking into account the findings of the initial intensive DCM monitoring)

To be determined once the representative heavy metals are confirmed

To be determined once the representative heavy metals are confirmed

Note:

1.     For DO measurement, non-compliance occurs when monitoring result is lower than the limits.

2.     For parameters other than DO, non-compliance of water quality results when monitoring results is higher than the limits.

3.     Depth-averaged results are used unless specified otherwise.

4.     The Action and Limit Levels specified in this table does not apply to SR1A and SR8 (see Section 5.11.1.3).

5.     The Action and Limit Levels for the two representative heavy metals chosen will be the same as that for the intensive DCM monitoring

Table 5‑5:         Action and Limit Levels for Intensive DCM Monitoring

Parameters

Action Level

Limit Level

DCM-Specific Parameters

 

 

Temperature in °C

 

1.8°C above the temperature recorded at upstream control stations at the same tide of the same day

2°C above the temperature recorded at upstream control stations at the same tide of the same day

Total Alkalinity in ppm

95

or 120% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

99

or 130% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

Nutrient (mg/l)

 

 

Ammonia (NH3)

0.18

0.20

Unionised ammonia (NH3)

(with 0.021 mg/L as the upper limit)

0.01

0.01

Nitrite (NO2)

0.12

0.13

Nitrate (NO3)

1.05

1.18

TKN

0.6

0.7

Total Phosphorus

0.06

0.07

Reactive Phosphorus

0.04

0.04

Heavy Metals (µg/l)

 

 

Cadmium (Cd)

0.1

0.1

Chromium (Cr)

0.2

0.2

Copper (Cu)

1.9

5.1

Nickel (Ni)

3.2

3.6

Lead (Pb)

0.2

0.2

Zinc (Zn)

6

8

Arsenic (As)

3

4

Silver (Ag)

0.1

0.1

Mercury (Hg)

0.05

0.05

Other Water Quality Parameters

DO in mg/L

(Surface and Middle)

80% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day or 4

mg/l, whichever is lower

70% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day or 4

mg/l, whichever is lower

DO in mg/L

(Bottom)

80% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day or 2

mg/l, whichever is lower

70% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day or 2

mg/l, whichever is lower

Suspended Solids (SS) in mg/L

120% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day

130% of upstream control station* at

the same tide of the same day

Turbidity in NTU

Note:

1.     Non-compliance of water quality results when monitoring results is higher than the limits, except for DO measurement whereby non-compliance results when monitoring results is lower than the limits.

2.     Depth-averaged results are used unless specified otherwise.

3.     For Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag and Hg, the percentile values are below detection limit, hence the Action and Limit Levels represent detection limit.

4.     Where the water quality results at control stations for individual parameters are below detection limit, the value of the detection limit will be adopted.

5.    (*) Upstream control station refers to average of the two control station results, unless the difference between the two control station results is >25%, in which case the higher (for SS and turbidity) and lower (for DO) of the two shall apply.

5.1.11.3   For sensitive receiver stations representing seawater intakes for cooling (e.g. SR1A and SR8), only the Action and Limit Levels for SS parameter would be applicable (as the operation of these intakes would not be significantly affected by the other water quality parameters). At these cooling water intakes, the Action and Limit Levels for SS are dependent on the operational tolerance of individual intakes. The ET will propose suitable Action and Limit Levels for SS at individual sensitive receiver stations representing seawater intakes. This shall be agreed with the IEC and the respective operators of the intakes prior to commencement of construction activities or commencement of operation of the seawater intake (whichever is later) and documented in the Baseline Monitoring Report and EM&A reports.

5.1.11.4   As documented in the Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report, the Action and Limit Levels for SR1A and SR8 are shown in Table 5‑6.

Table 5‑6:         Action Level and Limit Level for SR1A and SR8

SS (mg/l)

Action Level

Limit Level

SR1A

To be determined prior to its commissioning

To be determined prior to its commissioning

SR8

52

60

5.1.11.5   The actions in accordance with the Event and Action Plan in Table 5‑7 and Table 5‑8 should be carried out if the water quality assessment criteria are exceeded at any designated monitoring points.

Table 5‑7:         Event and Action Plan for General Impact Water Quality Monitoring

 

Action

Event

ET

IEC

AAHK / PM

Contractor

Action Level being exceeded by one sampling day

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC and Contractor;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC and Contractor;

6. Repeat in-situ monitoring on the day after the exceedance.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures.

Action Level being exceeded by more than two consecutive sampling days

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC and Contractor;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. Repeat in-situ monitoring on the day after the exceedance and prepare to increase the monitoring frequency to daily.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures.

 

Limit Level being exceeded by one sampling day

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC, Contractor and EPD;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. Repeat in-situ monitoring on the day after the exceedance and prepare to increase the monitoring frequency to daily

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with ET, IEC and Contractor on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Request Contractor to critically review the working methods;

3. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

4. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with AAHK / PM, ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures.

Limit Level being exceeded by more than one consecutive sampling days

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC, Contractor and EPD;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. Increase the in-situ monitoring frequency to daily until no exceedance of Limit Level for two consecutive days.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC, ET and Contractor on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Request contractor to critically review the working methods;

3. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

4. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures;

5. Consider and instruct, if necessary, the Contractor to slow down or to stop all or part of the construction activities until no exceedance of Limit Level.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide daily report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET until no further exceedance;

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with AAHK / PM, ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures;

8. As directed by AAHK / PM, to slow down or to stop all or part of the construction activities.

Note:  Where the Action Level is the same as the Limit Level, the actions specified for Limit Level exceedances shall apply.

Table 5‑8:         Event and Action Plan for DCM Process

 

Action

Event

ET

IEC

AAHK / PM

Contractor

Action Level being exceeded by one sampling day

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC and Contractor;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC and Contractor;

6. During intensive DCM monitoring and if not already undertaking daily monitoring, increase monitoring frequency in accordance with Chart 5.1 (applies to DCM-specific parameters only). During regular DCM monitoring, repeat monitoring on the day after the exceedance.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET;

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures.

Action Level being exceeded by more than two consecutive sampling days

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC and Contractor;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. During intensive DCM monitoring and if not already undertaking daily monitoring, increase monitoring frequency in accordance with Chart 5.1 (applies to DCM-specific parameters only). During regular DCM monitoring, repeat monitoring on the day after the exceedance and prepare to increase the monitoring frequency to daily.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET;

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within 3 working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures.

8. As directed by AAHK / PM, to slow down all or part of the construction activities.

Limit Level being exceeded by one sampling day

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC, Contractor and EPD;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC, AAHK / PM and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. During intensive DCM monitoring and if not already undertaking daily monitoring, increase monitoring frequency in accordance with Chart 5.1 (applies to DCM-specific parameters only). During regular DCM monitoring, repeat monitoring on the day after the exceedance.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC, ET and Contractor on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Request Contractor to critically review the working methods;

3. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

4. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET;

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with AAHK / PM, ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures.

Limit Level being exceeded by more than one consecutive sampling days

1. Repeat in-situ measurement to confirm findings;

2. Identify reasons for non-compliance and sources of impact;

3. Inform IEC, Contractor and EPD;

4. Check monitoring data, all plant, equipment and Contractor’s working methods;

5. Discuss mitigation measures with IEC, AAHK / PM and Contractor;

6. Ensure mitigation measures are implemented;

7. During intensive DCM monitoring and if not already undertaking daily monitoring, increase monitoring frequency in accordance with Chart 5.1 (applies to DCM-specific parameters only). During regular DCM monitoring, re-initiate the intensive DCM monitoring in accordance with Chart 5.1.

1. Discuss with ET and Contractor on the mitigation measures;

2. Review proposals on mitigation measures submitted by Contractor and advise AAHK / PM accordingly;

3. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures.

1. Discuss with IEC, ET and Contractor on the proposed mitigation measures;

2. Request contractor to critically review the working methods;

3. Make agreement on the mitigation measures to be implemented;

4. Assess the effectiveness of the implemented mitigation measures;

5. Consider and instruct, if necessary, the Contractor to slow down or to stop all or part of the construction activities until no exceedance of Limit Level.

1. Inform AAHK / PM and confirm receipt of ET’s notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Rectify unacceptable practice;

3. Check all plant and equipment;

4. Provide report of the status and condition of plant, equipment and mitigation measures to ET;

5. Consider changes of working methods;

6. Discuss with AAHK / PM, ET and IEC and propose mitigation measures to AAHK / PM and IEC within three working days;

7. Implement the agreed mitigation measures;

8. As directed by AAHK / PM, to stop all or part of the construction activities.

5.1.12    Mitigation Measures

5.1.12.1   The implementation schedule of the recommended water quality mitigation measures is presented in Appendix C.

5.2      Operation Water Quality Monitoring

5.2.1      Introduction

5.2.1.1      As it has been assessed that there would not be any significant changes in the water quality during operation of the project, no marine water quality monitoring is considered necessary during the operation phase.

5.2.1.2      Water quality monitoring for the spent cooling water discharges will be undertaken in accordance with the future Water Pollution Control Ordinance (WPCO) license conditions.

5.2.1.3      Water quality monitoring is proposed for the greywater treatment facility during commissioning of the facility to ensure the treated effluent quality complies with the reuse standards as defined in the EIA Report, which are reproduced in Table 5‑9.

Table 5‑9:         Treated Effluent Quality Criteria for Greywater Treatment Facility

Parameters

Criteria Level

SS

≤ 5 mg/L

BOD5

≤ 10 mg/L

COD

≤ 50 mg/L

Oil and Grease

≤ 10 mg/L

Surfactants (total)

≤ 5 mg/L

E. coli

< 1 count / 100ml

pH

6.0 – 9.0

Turbidity

< 2 NTU

Faecal Coliforms

Non detectable / 100ml

5.2.2      Commissioning Test for Greywater Treatment Facility

5.2.2.1      During commissioning of the greywater treatment facility, monitoring of pH, turbidity, SS, 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), oil and grease, E.coli, faecal coliforms and surfactants for the treated effluent should be undertaken to ensure the treatment facility will be able to treat the greywater to levels in compliance with the reuse standards as listed in Table 5‑9. Details of the proposed monitoring for treated effluent including the monitoring location, monitoring frequency, effluent sampling and testing methods should be proposed by the ET, which will then be checked by the IEC for agreement with the AAHK / PM and EPD at least two weeks before commencement of the commissioning.

5.2.2.2      During operation of the greywater treatment facility, regular water quality monitoring for the treated effluent discharges will be undertaken, which shall monitor compliance of the treated effluent against both the reuse standard specified in Table 5‑9, and the discharge standard (for discharge to foul sewer) as per the future WPCO license conditions for discharge to foul sewer. Reuse of the treated effluent shall be suspended if the monitoring results do not comply with the reuse standards. The treated greywater will be discharged to the sewerage system until the greywater treatment system resumes compliance.

 

6        Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Implications

6.1             Construction Phase Monitoring

6.1.1.1      After implementation of the recommended mitigation measure for sewage from construction workforce as detailed in Appendix C, no sewerage impacts are expected from the site during construction stage. No specific sewage monitoring during construction phase is thus required.

6.2             Operation Phase Monitoring

6.2.1.1      The gravity sewer from the airport discharge manhole to Tung Chung Sewage Pumping Station (TCSPS) will be upgraded by AAHK to cater for the ultimate design sewage flow from the expanded airport.  AAHK will start planning construction of the gravity sewer upgrading in 2022 or when the sewage flow in the affected gravity sewer exceeds 80% of the design capacity of the sewer, whichever is earlier, so as to ensure timely completion of the mitigation works before the flow would exceed the design capacity of the sewer.  For this, it is recommended that AAHK should conduct annual monitoring for the sewage flow build-up of the gravity sewer from the airport discharge manhole to TCSPS from 2020 onwards, i.e., one year before the scheduled commencement of operation of the proposed third runway.

6.2.1.2      Moreover, in order to ensure the additional sewage generated from the 3RS project would not impose adverse impacts in respect of sewage septicity and odour issues on the existing sewerage networks including the public sewerage system, it is recommended to start routine monitoring of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels for the sewerage system of 3RS upon commencement of operation of the project,

6.2.1.3      The ET should propose suitable method for carrying out the annual sewage flow monitoring for the concerned gravity sewer as well as details of the routine H2S monitoring system for the sewerage system of 3RS, which shall be checked by IEC and agreed by the AAHK / PM and EPD at least one year before commencement of operation of 3RS. 

 

7        Waste Management Implications

7.1             Construction Phase Monitoring

7.1.1         Monitoring Requirements

7.1.1.1      Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the construction of the project was submitted to EPD no later than 3 months before the commencement of construction in accordance to EP Condition 2.19. The Contractors are responsible for waste management activities during construction phase. The Contractors must ensure that all wastes produced during the construction phase are handled, stored and disposed of in accordance with EPD’s regulations and requirements and in line with good waste management practices. Contract-specific WMPs should be prepared and implemented by individual Contractors in accordance with Environment, Transport and Works Bureau (ETWB TC(W)) No. 19/2005 Environmental Management on Construction Site and the Construction WMP. The contract-specific WMPs shall be updated from time to time and shall be reviewed and advised by the ET. All submissions shall be submitted to AAHK / PM for agreement and verified by the IEC.

7.1.1.2      The Contractors should also refer to the Construction and Demolition Material Management Plan (C&DMMP) which will be submitted to Public Fill Committee (PFC) before commencement of construction of the project to facilitate them in the preparation of the contract-specific WMP. The C&DMMP should provide ways to minimise the generation and maximise the reuse of the construction and demolition (C&D) material at the construction phase of the project. The C&DMMP should also describe the arrangement for collection and disposal of C&D materials to be generated from the construction phase.

7.1.1.3      During construction phase, the Contractors should perform regular site inspection (at least once per week) to determine if wastes are being managed in accordance with approved procedures and the contract-specific WMP. Waste materials generated during the construction works, such as inert C&D material, general refuse and chemical wastes, are recommended to be monitored on a weekly basis to ensure that proper storage, transportation and disposal practices are being implemented. This monitoring of waste management practices will ensure that these solid and liquid wastes are not disposed into the nearby harbour waters. The Contractors would be responsible for the implementation of any mitigation measures to minimise waste or redress problems arising from the waste materials.

7.1.2         Audit Requirements

7.1.2.1      It is recommended that the waste generated during construction phase should be audited periodically (at least once per week) by the ET to determine if wastes are being managed in accordance with approved procedures and the contract-specific WMPs. The audits should look at all aspects of waste management including waste generation, storage, transportation and disposal. An appropriate audit programme would be to undertake a first audit near the commencement of the construction works, and then to audit periodically thereafter. In addition, routine site inspections by the Contractors should check the implementation of the recommended good site practices and other waste management mitigation measures. The results of the waste management audits should be reported in the EM&A reports.

7.1.2.2      In case of any complaint is received, the ET shall check compliance with the procedures for carrying out complaint investigation and propose the necessary improvement actions. In case non-compliance of the WMP, contract-specific WMPs, any statutory and contractual requirements, the Event and Action Plan as shown in Chart 7.1 shall be triggered.

7.1.2.3      The Action and Limit Levels for construction waste are defined in Table 7.1. Should non-compliance occur, actions in accordance with the Event and Action Plan in Chart 7.1, should be carried out.

Table 7.1:         Action and Limit Level of Construction Waste

Monitoring Location

Action Level

Limit Level

Construction Area

When one valid documented complaint is received.

Non-compliance of the WMP, contract-specific WMPs, any statutory and contractual requirements

 

Chart 7.1:           Event and Action Plan for Non-compliance of the WMP, Contract-specific WMPs, Any Statutory and Contractual Requirements

Action Level

Limit Level

 

7.1.2.4      The ET shall check the disposal records for C&D materials and audit the trip-ticket system (TTS) for off-site delivery of surplus inert C&D materials to the designated disposal grounds. The ET shall also check that all wastes are appropriately recorded and disposed in accordance with the contract-specific WMPs.

7.1.2.5      A summary of all key types of waste arising and the reuse and disposal methods proposed during the construction phase is presented in Table 7‑2.

Table 7‑2:         Summary of Waste Arising during Construction Phase

Waste Type

Key Sources of Waste Generation

Timing of Waste Generation

Estimated Total Quantity of Waste Generation

Waste Reuse or Disposal

Handling Methods

Inert C&D Material

Excavation for APM & BHS tunnels, new APM depot and airside tunnels; piling works for TRC & other buildings; superstructure construction works; surplus surcharge material; modification of existing northern seawall; excavation and demolition as well as superstructure construction works for T2 expansion; excavation for improvement of road networks; and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) for diversion of existing submarine pipelines

Q1 of 2016 to Q3 of 2024

9,543,500 m3

(in-situ volume)

About 3,639,230 m3 of the inert C&D materials generated would be reused on-site as fill materials for the proposed land formation works.  The remaining 5,904,270 m3 would be delivered off-site to any identified projects that need fill materials and/or to the government’s PFRF for beneficial use by other projects in Hong Kong.  

Segregation of inert C&D material to avoid contamination from other waste arising

Stockpile areas should be covered and applied with regular water spraying

Non-inert C&D Material

Site clearance of the golf course area; demolition works for T2 expansion; and superstructure construction works for various buildings / facilities

Q3 of 2017 to Q3 of 2024

96,200 m3

(in-situ volume)

The non-inert C&D material will be disposed of at landfills after on-site sorting and segregation of recyclable materials

Separation of non-inert C&D materials from inert C&D materials

Stored in compatible containers in designated area on-site

Excavated Marine Sediments

 

Excavation at the cable field joint area

Q3 of 2017

About 10,200 m3

 (in-situ volume)

Type 1 open sea disposal for Category L sediment or Type 1 open sea disposal at dedicated sites for Category Mp sediment, according to PNAP ADV-21 (subject to endorsement by MFC of CEDD and EPD as well as obtaining dumping permit from EPD under DASO)

Stockpile with tarpaulin covers with earth bunds and sand bags barriers, if applicable.

 

Piling works of the TRC, APM & BHS tunnels, airside tunnels and other facilities on the proposed land formation area

Q4 of 2017 to Q2 of 2023

About 705,350 m3

 (in-situ volume)

Treatment by cement mixing and stabilisation and on-site reuse of treated sediments as backfilling materials, although the treatment level / details and the reuse mode are under further development.

Piling works of marine sections of the approach lights for the third runway

2018 to 2019 (subject to detailed design)

Western approach lights: about 530 m3 of marine sediments (in-situ volume)

Eastern approach lights: about 1,060 m3 of DCM-treated sediment (in-situ volume)

Treatment by cement mixing and stabilisation and on-site reuse of treated sediments as backfilling materials, although the treatment level / details and the reuse mode are under further development.

Piling works of new HKIAAA beacons

2018 to 2019 (subject to detailed design)

About 220 m3

(in-situ volume)

Treatment by cement mixing and stabilisation and on-site reuse of treated sediments as backfilling materials, although the treatment level / details and the reuse mode are under further development.

Basement works of T2 expansion

Q3 of 2017 to Q4 of 2019

About 50,730 m3

 (in-situ volume)

Treatment by cement mixing and stabilisation and on-site reuse of treated sediments as backfilling materials, although the treatment level / details and the reuse mode are under further development.

Excavation works of APM depot

Q1 of 2018 to Q3 of 2020

About 9,770 m3

 (in-situ volume)

Treatment by cement mixing and stabilisation and on-site reuse of treated sediments as backfilling materials, although the treatment level / details and the reuse mode are under further development.

Chemical Waste

Used cleansing fluids, solvents, lubricating oil, waste fuel, etc., from maintenance and servicing of construction plant and equipment

2016 to Early 2024

Anticipated as small quantity

To be quantified in the site Waste Management Plan to be prepared by the Contractor

Disposal of at the Chemical Waste Treatment Centre or other licensed recycling facilities

Stored in compatible containers in designated area on-site

General Refuse & Floating Refuse

Food scraps, waste paper, empty containers, etc. generated from the construction workforce

 

2016 to Early 2024

General refuse: maximum daily arising of up to 9,100 kg

 

Encourage segregation of recyclable materials (e.g., paper, tin-cans, etc.) for collection by outside recyclers

Collection of non-recyclable refuse by a reputable collector for disposal at designated landfill sites.

Provide on-site collection points together with recycling bins

 

 

Floating refuse trapped or accumulated in the newly constructed seawall

2017 to Early 2024

Floating refuse: roughly 65 m3/year to be collected from the newly constructed seawall

Collection by a reputable waste collector for disposal at designated landfill sites

Provide on-site collection points


7.1.3         Mitigation Measures

7.1.3.1      The implementation schedule of the recommended waste management mitigation measures is presented in Appendix C and the WMP.

7.2             Operation Phase Monitoring

7.2.1.1      Wastes produced during operation phase would be generated by a variety of landside and airside activities and mainly comprise of general refuse, chemical waste, sludge from greywater treatment plant and floating refuse that may be trapped on the artificial seawall of the expanded airport site.

7.2.1.2      Operation WMP shall be submitted to EPD no later than 3 months before the commencement of operation of the project in accordance to EP Condition 2.25.

7.2.1.3      During operation phase, weekly inspection should be carried out along the artificial seawall of the expanded airport island to check for any entrapment or accumulation of floating refuse by contractor. Where an appreciable amount of floating refuse is found on the artificial seawall during the weekly inspection, the locations of such refuse will be recorded and arrangements with the contractor will immediately be made to collect and clear the refuse from the seawall.

7.2.1.4      With the implementation of the recommended mitigation measures for handling, transportation and disposal of the identified waste arisings, no adverse residual impacts are anticipated during operation phase of the project. Therefore, no other specific waste monitoring during operation phase is required.

 

8        Land Contamination

8.1             Construction Phase Monitoring

8.1.1.1      Since some of the assessment areas (i.e. fuel tank room within T2 building, fuel tank room to the west of CAD antenna farm, seawater pump house and switching station, pumping station and fire training facility) were not accessible for site reconnaissance, further site reconnaissance would be conducted once these areas are accessible in order to identify any land contamination concern for the areas. Subject to the further site reconnaissance findings, a supplementary Contamination Assessment Plan (CAP) for additional site investigation (SI) (if necessary) shall be prepared by the ET in accordance with EP Condition 2.20 and submitted to EPD for endorsement prior to the commencement of SI at these areas.

8.1.1.2      Since all the areas identified with potential contamination issues are under on-going use, the SI works are proposed to be carried out after removal / decommissioning of the concerned facilities but prior to the commencement of construction works at those areas.

8.1.1.3      After completion of the SI, the Contamination Assessment Report (CAR) will be prepared and submitted to EPD for approval prior to the commencement of construction works at the golf course, the underground and above-ground fuel storage tank areas, emergency power generation units, airside petrol filling station and fuel tank room. Should remediation be required, Remediation Action Plan (RAP) and Remediation Report (RR) will be prepared for EPD’s approval prior to commencement of the proposed remediation and any construction works respectively.

8.1.1.4      All soil and groundwater remediation works should be carried out to clean up to levels in compliance with the relevant Risk-based Remediation Goals (RBRG) prior to commencement of any construction works at all areas identified with contamination issues (if any).

8.1.1.5      During construction phase, EM&A is to be carried out in the form of regular site inspections. All related procedures and facilities for handling or storage of chemicals and chemical wastes will be audited regularly to ensure they are in order, intact and reported in the EM&A reports accordingly.

8.2             Operation Phase Monitoring

8.2.1.1      As land remediation is not anticipated during the operation phase, no environmental monitoring and audit for land contamination is considered necessary.

 

9        Terrestrial Ecological Impact

9.1             Ecological Mitigation Measures

9.1.1.1      Mitigation measures were recommended in accordance with Annex 16 of the EIAO-TM. The recommended mitigation measures extracted from Section 12.7 of EIA Report are listed below and the implementation schedule is presented in Appendix C. In relation to the pre-construction egretry survey, the requirement of submission of an Egretry Survey Plan is also specified in EP Condition 2.14.

Avoidance

Land Formation Area

9.1.1.2      The land formation area is not located in a habitat of high ecological sensitivity, therefore the impact to terrestrial ecology is greatly avoided in the project design stage and no specific terrestrial ecological mitigation measures is deemed necessary for the loss of terrestrial habitat.

HDD Daylighting Location

9.1.1.3      The originally proposed daylighting location is immediately opposite the existing AFRF which minimises the pipe connection works. However given the presence of the egretry, the daylighting location is now shifted northwards. This measure aims to avoid direct impacts to the egretry (an avoidance measure based on the outcomes of the impact assessment) and furthermore, the daylighting location and mooring of flat top barge, if required, will be kept away from the egretry (original daylighting location refers to Section 12.6.3.1 of the EIA Report and alternative location specified as blue zone in Drawing MCL-P132-EMA-9-001). The vegetation at the northeastern side of Sheung Sha Chau Island near the proposed daylighting location is short and shrubby which is less suitable for egretry use. Only a small works area (about 10 m x 10 m) will be needed at the tentative daylighting location. This alternative is chosen as the preferred option owing to the ecological concerns, despite a longer pipe connection being required. The final daylighting location within the blue zone is subject to further adjustment to avoid direct encroachment on the egretry, giving due consideration to the findings of the pre-construction monitoring for Sha Chau egretry, which was conducted before the commencement of the HDD drilling works at HKIA. With the adjustment of the daylighting location, direct encroachment onto the egretry will be avoided. 

Timing of Construction Works

9.1.1.4      All HDD and related construction works on Sheung Sha Chau Island will all be scheduled outside the ardeids’ breeding season (between April and July). No night-time construction work will be allowed on Sheung Sha Chau Island during all seasons except the contingency event as specified in Sections 12.6.3.4 and 12.6.3.5 of the EIA Report. With these avoidance measures the impact can be largely minimised. 

Minimisation

Preservation of Nesting Vegetation

9.1.1.5      The HDD daylighting location proposed in the blue zone identified in Drawing MCL-P132-EMA-9-001 will be located within a rock area near the seashore, whilst the connecting pipelines will be aligned along the seashore (above the shoreline). This proposed arrangement will avoid the need for tree cutting, therefore trees that are used by ardeids for nesting will be preserved. 

9.2             Pre-construction Egretry Survey

9.2.1.1      As a mitigation measure to avoid disturbance to the egretry, the HDD daylighting location and associated works will be conducted outside the Sha Chau egretry’s boundary. The location of the HDD daylighting location is indicated as blue zone in Drawing MCL-P132-EMA-9-001.  It is noted that the egretry’s status and location could change from time to time even in the absence of human disturbance. Therefore, a pre-construction survey is recommended to update the latest boundary of the egretry during the breeding season before commencement of the HDD drilling works at HKIA. The survey will update the latest boundary of the egretry and to ensure the daylighting location will avoid direct encroachment on the egretry. Subject to the pre-construction survey findings, the daylighting location/ works area will be adjusted to avoid the future egretry location.

9.2.1.2      The pre-construction survey has been conducted once per month in the breeding season, i.e. between April and July, prior to the commencement of HDD drilling works. The survey works was conducted by qualified ecologist with at least three years’ experience on egretry monitoring. Ardeid species and abundance were recorded whilst the latest boundary of the egretry was identified. The information collected through the pre-construction survey was incorporated into the Egretry Survey Plan, which has been submitted to EPD no later than 1 month before the commencement of HDD drilling works. The result of the egretry survey and the decision on HDD daylighting location has been agreed with EPD and Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) by submission of an Egretry Survey Plan prior to the commencement of HDD drilling works. 

9.3             Ecological Monitoring

9.3.1.1      During the HDD construction works period from August to March, ecological monitoring shall be undertaken monthly at the HDD daylighting location on Sheung Sha Chau Island to identify and evaluate any impacts with appropriate actions taken as required to address and minimise any adverse impact found. Attention shall also be given to the months either side of the ardeids breeding season, i.e. March and August, to identify any early or late breeding activities that might be subject to disturbance. The monitoring during works period shall be undertaken by experienced ecologist competent in detecting any potential disturbance to the egretry.

 

10   Marine Ecological Impact

10.1    Introduction

10.1.1.1   The EIA Report has predicted the project would lead to some ecological impacts and has recommended a series of measures to avoid, minimise, and mitigate the impacts to an acceptable level. According to EIAO-TM Annex 16, an ecological EM&A programme would be needed to ensure the recommended measures are properly implemented.  In addition, the EM&A programme also serves other purposes, including but not limited to verifying the accuracy of the ecological assessment study, detecting any unpredicted ecological impacts and recommending adaptive management in response to unpredicted impacts.

10.1.1.2   It is recommended that an EM&A programme for ecology be undertaken during the baseline (pre-construction), construction, post-construction and operation phases of the project.  The objectives of the pre-construction phase EM&A are to undertake baseline monitoring for the corals and Chinese White Dolphins (CWDs). The construction, post-construction and operational audit objectives are to ensure that the ecological mitigation measures recommended in the EIA Report are carried out as specified and are effective.  The construction and operation phase monitoring will be to monitor the CWDs over the construction period and also determine the effectiveness of the mitigation on CWD numbers. The EM&A will also be undertaken to verify the predictions in the EIA Report.

10.2    Ecological Monitoring

10.2.1    Background

10.2.1.1   It is predicted in the EIA Report that there will be direct impact on the corals communities along the northern seawall of the existing airport island. A pre-construction phase dive survey is recommended in the EIA Report to review the feasibility of coral translocation and preparation of translocation and monitoring plan where necessary. It is also predicted in the EIA Report that the area immediately north of the existing airport platform, which is predominantly used as a travelling area for the CWD, will be affected by the project but that alternative routes for travelling east and west during construction phase and initial operational phase will be available to CWDs, potentially shifted to an area further north of the new platform. 

10.2.1.2   In addition, habitat will be lost permanently as a result of the 3RS project and there will be construction phase disturbance to the CWDs movement and behaviour.  Therefore, it is proposed to conduct ecological monitoring during the baseline, construction, post-construction and operation phases of the project, with the aims to monitor the effects on the CWDs over the construction period, including the potential shift in the CWD travelling areas and habitat use, to monitor the effectiveness of the High Speed Ferry (HSF) speed and routing restrictions to the CWDs, as well as the proposed new Marine Park (when it comes into operation) on CWD distribution and numbers. Post-construction refers to the 12 months period after the completion of marine works while operational monitoring refers to the completion of the 3RS project as a whole.

10.2.1.3   The CWD monitoring will be conducted by the ET, led by a CWD monitoring team leader with five years post-graduate experience in CWD monitoring. An overarching goal of these surveys is to provide a dataset that can be compatible with the AFCD long term monitoring, be stratified in such a way as to allow the calculation of density and abundance for the various different phases listed above and to facilitate the calculation of trends from these estimates, providing some assessment of how the project and cumulative effects may be impacting the CWDs. 

10.2.1.4   Methods of the baseline, construction, post-construction and operation phase surveys will be as consistent as possible with the AFCD long-term monitoring programme to allow for direct comparisons of results among different phases, thus allowing an evaluation of trends and impact assessments. Further details are provided below.

10.2.1.5   Regular meetings with the Authority and relevant Government Departments e.g. EPD and AFCD will be arranged on a quarterly basis when the construction phase surveys commence to review CWD distribution and abundance trends.  The data collected from vessel line transect survey, land-based surveys and theodolite tracking and the Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) will be reviewed to derive the distribution and abundance trends, which will be checked against the transect survey conducted under other projects and AFCD’s long-term monitoring. It will also be conducted in conjunction with the review of stranding data to interpret the full picture of CWD’s latest status during construction phase.  It is expected that the 3RS reclamation activities would result in the temporary movement of CWDs away from 3RS works areas during the construction period, and this may be indicated by a further decline in CWD abundance in the Northwest Lantau survey area over the period of construction. Actions may also be explored, where necessary, for remediating unpredictable impacts or changes in abundance that are identified during the monitoring, recognising that actions that serve to prolong the period of reclamation activity may in themselves have an adverse impact on CWDs.

10.2.2    Pre-construction Phase Coral Dive Survey

10.2.2.1   It is proposed to conduct a pre-construction phase dive survey for corals along the northern and northeastern seawall of the existing airport island and at the daylighting location on Sha Chau that may subject to direct habitat loss and disturbance as a precautionary measure prior to marine construction works. The aim is to identify any coral colonies suitable for translocation. The potential for coral translocation will depend on the conservation value, the health status and the translocation feasibility. A detailed coral translocation plan has been submitted to EPD no later than 3 months before the commencement of marine construction works at areas with potential to affect coral colonies in accordance to EP Condition 2.12. The determination of the translocation was based on the conservation importance of the coral species (including hard corals, soft corals and octocorals), the coral health conditions, size of the communities and feasibility for translocation (e.g. attached to large boulders but <50 cm in diameter and considered as manageable of translocation with minimal destruction of the coral communities). Locations of pre-construction coral dive surveys for the directly affected site are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-001, the locations for the potential recipient site(s) were determined as part of the translocation plan. In addition, it should be noted that the daylighting location on Sha Chau will be finalised based on the findings from the pre-construction egretry survey as indicated in Section 9.2, as well as to avoid affecting any coral colonies in the area. Therefore, pre-construction phase coral dive survey will only be carried out at Sha Chau if there are any marine works with potential to affect coral colonies as identified by the ET. The preliminary methodology for coral dive survey will be as follows:

Coral Dive Survey at Directly Affected Site and Potential Recipient Site(s)

10.2.2.2   Based on the sub-tidal coral dive survey at hard substrates conducted in the EIA Report, the underwater visibility within the western Lantau waters are generally low. It is proposed to conduct the pre-construction survey at sites which would be directly affected by the project. Suitable substrates with coral communities will be identified, supervised by qualified marine ecologists with at least 5 years of coral dive survey experience.

10.2.2.3   The pre-construction survey was conducted by spot-check dive followed by Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) should coral communities recorded. The survey was conducted at hard bottom subtidal habitats along the northern artificial seawall of the existing airport island, and at the proposed daylighting location on Sha Chau as shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-001 during daytime. If coral communities suitable for translocation are identified at these directly affected sites, coral dive surveys including spot-check dive followed by REA will also be conducted at potential recipient site(s).

10.2.2.4   The spot-check dive survey was conducted by swimming in a search pattern along pre-determined areas at a density sufficient to cover any major coral areas and to assess the type of benthos existing in the proposed survey area, recording any presence of hard corals (order Scleractinia), octocorals (sub-class Octocorallia), and black corals (order Antipatharia). Information including estimated number of colonies, number of species, coral cover, and partial mortality (if any) will be recorded during the actual dive.

10.2.2.5   The following data was recorded during the survey:

     Temperature, time and date;

     Location (GPS);

     Depth range;

     Visibility;

     Substratum type (i.e. hard substratum seabed, intertidal rocky area); and

     Other invertebrates present.

10.2.2.6   Any special features encountered in the coral areas, such as non-typical reef structures, unusual coral species associations, unique or peculiar assemblages of the local incipient reef formations, and reefs that are almost completely dominated by one particular species, will be recorded.

10.2.2.7   Representative photographs of the habitat and coral species, and other ecological features will be taken to facilitate the determination of suitable similar habitats as recipient site.

Rapid Ecological Assessment Survey

10.2.2.8   With reference to the data collected during the spot-check dive survey, REA surveys will be carried out at locations where coral communities were identified and at potential recipient site(s). Transects of 100m in length will be laid following the contour of the seabed at areas where corals communities identified during the spot-check dives / at potential recipient site(s).

10.2.2.9   The REA survey will be conducted underwater in a two-tier approach to assess the sub-littoral substrata and benthic organisms in an area:

     Tier I assessed the relative coverage of major benthic groups and substrata.

     Tier II provided an inventory of sedentary/ sessile benthic taxa, which will be ranked in terms of their abundance at the survey site.

10.2.2.10 The taxon categories will be ranked in terms of relative abundance of individuals, rather than the contribution to benthic cover along each transect. The ranks will be made by visual assessments of abundance, rather than quantitative counts of each taxon.

10.2.2.11 The benthic coverage, taxon abundance, and ecological attributes of the transects will be recorded in a swath of about 2m wide, with about 1m on either side of the transects.

10.2.2.12 Representative photographs of any important ecological features and corals will be taken to facilitate the determination of suitable similar habitats as recipient site and as baseline information for future post-translocation monitoring.

10.2.3    CWD Monitoring Phases

10.2.3.1   The CWD monitoring by vessel surveys will be conducted during baseline, construction, post construction and operational phases. Supplementary surveys including land-based theodolite tracking and underwater acoustic monitoring using PAM or equivalent devices are also proposed to provide additional information (such as behaviour change of CWD associated with concurrent activities and habitat use of CWD during day and night) for facilitating the review of effectiveness of mitigation measures proposed and the need for adaptive management.

10.2.3.2   Monitoring for CWDs is proposed to be conducted by vessel surveys at a frequency of two full surveys per month of the Northeast Lantau (NEL) and Northwest Lantau (NWL) covering the Airport West (AW), West Lantau (WL) and Southwest Lantau (SWL) transects, including focal follows and photo-identification, during the baseline, construction, post-construction and operational phases. The full surveys refer to completion of two survey transects for NEL / NWL, WL and SWL and any required focal follows per month, irrespective of the number of days of effort required.  Ad hoc monitoring of other CWD habitat areas will be undertaken as required and on an as-needed basis to be determined during the course of the monitoring. The monitoring periods for vessel surveys will be as follows:

1)    Baseline Monitoring – 6 months of baseline surveys has been undertaken before the commencement of land-formation related construction works at a frequency of two full surveys per month. The commencement date of baseline survey was agreed between the ET / IEC / AAHK / PM to ensure timely submission of the baseline monitoring report to EPD and relevant authorities. The purpose of the baseline monitoring is to establish pre-construction conditions prior to the commencement of the marine construction works. The vessel based dolphin monitoring transects in baseline monitoring are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-002.

2)    Construction Phase Monitoring – This will be conducted for the duration of the land-formation related construction works for the project at a frequency of two full surveys per month with regular reviews on frequency on at least an annual basis. The purpose of the construction phase monitoring is to evaluate conditions during construction and provide data for the preparation of Marine Park establishment and management plan.

3)    Post Construction Phase Monitoring – This will be conducted upon the completion of marine construction works for 12 months at a frequency of two full surveys per month. The purpose of the post construction phase monitoring is to evaluate conditions after completion of all marine works and collect data for the review of recovery of the marine environment.

4)    Operation Phase Monitoring - This will be conducted for a period of at least 12 months after the full implementation of proposed Marine Park at a frequency of two full surveys per month. The main purpose of the monitoring is to detect any rebound in use of areas north and east of HKIA during the implementation of the proposed Marine Park as mitigation for habitat loss for the airport expansion, and to evaluate the overall, long-term impacts of the project on CWDs. The vessel based dolphin monitoring transects in construction, post-construction and operation phases monitoring are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-003, with transects for operation phase monitoring subject to refinement based on the actual boundaries for the extension of Hong Kong International Airport Approach Areas (HKIAAA) and 3RS Marine Park.

10.2.3.3   The vessel monitoring data will be used to monitor the effectiveness of the mitigation measures proposed for the amelioration of construction, post-construction and operation phase impacts. In particular, the vessel monitoring data in the northwest Lantau area together with the data of marine traffic tracking system (e.g. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data) will be used as an audit tool to review and determine the effectiveness of the reduction in speed for the diverted SkyPier HSF on disturbance to the CWDs around the north of Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park (SCLKCMP) (see Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-002).  In addition to the proposed vessel transect monitoring, some additional monitoring is proposed in the form of land-based theodolite tracking, combined with underwater acoustic monitoring to provide additional information on CWD behaviour and occurrence during 3RS construction works to supplement the details on CWD abundance patterns obtained from vessel transect surveys. The main aim for these two monitoring types is to supplement the vessel transect survey findings detailed above and to help in verifying the predictions in the EIA Report. The effectiveness of these additional measures in monitoring data collection will be reviewed during the construction phase, to confirm the need and required frequency that will be applied for post-construction and operation phase monitoring.

10.2.3.4   Land-based theodolite tracking is proposed to cover the 6-months baseline and it will also cover the whole duration of the land formation related construction works to provide adequate seasonal data with the data serving to provide fine-scale information on CWD behaviour and activity during construction, specifically swimming and movement patterns of CWD groups, and to further capture CWD response to vessels and travel patterns. The theodolite station established on Sha Chau is proposed to be used, given its good aspect overlooking the proposed 3RS reclamation area north of HKIA. Another land-based monitoring station at north of Lung Kwu Chau is proposed to supplement the vessel monitoring data in determining the effectiveness of the reduction in speed for the SkyPier HSF on disturbance to the CWDs (Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-004). The frequency of the theodolite tracking will be two days per month at both Sha Chau station and Lung Kwu Chau station during the 6-month baseline monitoring survey and the first six months of SkyPier HSF route diversion and speed restriction plan implementation (hereafter referred to as SkyPier HSF Plan).  During the construction phase, the frequency of the theodolite tracking for impact monitoring will be one day per month at the Sha Chau station and one day per month at the Lung Kwu Chau station. The frequency of CWD land-based monitoring will be subject to review after reviewing the data from the baseline monitoring and from the initial six months of SkyPier HSF Plan implementation. Should any changes in the theodolite stations or tracking frequency be proposed as a result of the review, the proposed changes will be agreed with EPD and AFCD. Any available land-based survey data collected near the Lung Kwu Tan and Urmston Road areas by other projects will also be reviewed to supplement the survey results for the report to Advisory Council on the Environment (ACE) on the effectiveness of the mitigation measures on CWDs.  

10.2.3.5   Underwater acoustic monitoring using PAM or equivalent devices as adopted in the EIA assessment will also be undertaken during the same periods including 6 months of baseline and within the whole duration for land formation related construction works.  Data would be used in tracking diurnal patterns of CWD presence and vocal activity, as well as the noise characteristics of the underwater environment, for example vessel noise. As the information obtained from these surveys does not quantify CWD density and abundance, it is not useful to set an Action / Limit Level based on data from these supplemental PAM or equivalent devices. It is proposed to deploy the PAM station at the southern water of SCLKCMP boundary in order to coincide and supplement the data collected from the land-based monitoring station at south of Sha Chau (Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-005), which will be subject to review.  Should any changes in the PAM station be proposed as a result of the review, the proposed changes will be agreed with EPD and AFCD. Any available PAM data collected near the Lung Kwu Tan and Urmston Road areas by other projects will also be reviewed to supplement the survey results.

10.2.3.6   In conjunction with the above monitoring efforts, and given the uncertainty on the levels of HSF traffic from SkyPier / the Intermodal Transfer Terminus (ITT) in future years, the EM&A will also monitor actual numbers of HSFs operating from SkyPier after the HZMB and HKBCF commence operations by obtaining HSF movement data including AIS vessel tracking data from the SkyPier operators.

10.2.4    CWD Monitoring Methods

Small Vessel Line Transect Surveys

10.2.4.1   Vessel-based CWD surveys provide data for density and abundance estimation and other assessments using distance-sampling methodologies, specifically, line-transect analysis.  These surveys also include photo-identification of individual dolphins within the monitoring area when conditions are suitable, to provide data on individual use of this specific area.  Focal follow data from the vessel may also potentially be collected, depending on a series of factors such as the presence of special features for identification of individuals (like presence of scratches, nick marks, cuts, wounds and distinguished color patterns) and favourable weather conditions.

10.2.4.2   The surveys involve small vessel line-transect data collection and have been designed to be similar to, and consistent with, previous surveys for monitoring of small cetaceans in Hong Kong. The survey was designed to provide systematic, quantitative measurements of density, abundance and habitat use by line transect methods.  

10.2.4.3   The transects to be monitored will cover NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL and will be consistent with the AFCD long-term monitoring programme (except AW) during the baseline, construction, post-construction and operation phases. Due to the progressive extension of the works area that will be demarcated by floating booms during construction and permanent land formation footprint during operation, the transects will be adjusted in the construction, post-construction and operation phases to outside the area that can no longer be accessed by the survey vessel. The AW transect has not been previously surveyed in the AFCD programme due to the restrictions of HKIAA. Nevertheless, this transect was established during the EIA of the 3RS project, with the aim to collect project specific baseline information within the HKIAAA to fill the data gap that was not covered by the AFCD programme. This will provide a larger sample size for estimating the densities and patterns of movement in the broader study area of the project. The baseline, construction, post construction and operation phase line transects are shown in Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-002 and MCL/P132/EMA/10-003 respectively. 

10.2.4.4   A 15-20 m vessel with a flying bridge observation platform about 4 to 5 m above water level and unobstructed forward view, and a team of three to four observers will be deployed to undertake the surveys.  Two observers are to be on search effort at all times when following the transect lines with a constant speed of 7 to 8 knots (i.e. 13 to 15 km per hour), one using binoculars and the other using unaided eyes and recording data.

10.2.4.5   When CWDs are seen, the observer team will be taken off-effort, the dolphins will be approached and photographed for photo-ID information (using a Canon 7D [or similar] camera and long 300 mm+ telephoto lens), then followed until they leave the study area or are lost. At that point, the boat returns (off effort) to the next survey line and begins to survey on effort again. CWD density (D), abundance (N), and their associated precision (CV) will only be calculated from dolphin sightings and effort data collected under conditions of Beaufort 0-3 and visibility of approximately 1200 m or greater (in practice, surveys should normally be postponed when visibility is below 1 km and/or when Beaufort 5 is reached), using conventional line transect methods and the formulae as detailed below:

 

 

 

 

10.2.4.6   Based on the vessel survey data, seasonal differences in dolphin density and use of the study area will then be examined, using the solar seasons (Winter: December-February, Spring: March-May, Summer: June-August, Autumn: September-November) and/or oceanographic seasons (Dry: October-March, Wet: April-September).

10.2.4.7   Focal follows of dolphins will also be conducted where practicable (i.e. when individual dolphins or small stable groups of dolphins with members that could be readily identified with unaided eyes during observations and weather conditions are favourable).  These involve the boat following (at an appropriate distance to minimize disturbance) an identifiable individual dolphin for an extended period of time, and collecting detailed data on its location, behaviour, response to vessels, and associates. This type of data allows information to be gathered on the movement paths and travel corridors used by dolphins in the survey region.  The data collected will be comparable to data being collected during focal follows in the AFCD-funded long-term monitoring surveys, and the combined dataset of both sets of focal follows allows the evaluation of travel corridors for the greater Hong Kong region to be undertaken, with potential emphasis on and near the land formation area.  Time allocation between line transect surveys and focal follows will be decided based on the desire to obtain adequate samples of both types of data, but two full transect surveys will be completed per month.

Land-based Surveys and Theodolite Tracking

10.2.4.8   Land-based monitoring has been able to obtain fine-scale information on the time of day and movement patterns of the CWDs.  A digital theodolite (Sokkia/Sokkisha Model DT5 or similar equipment) with 30-power magnification and 5-s precision will be used to obtain the vertical and horizontal angle of each dolphin and vessel position. Angles are converted to geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) and data will be recorded using Pythagoras software, Version 1.2 (Gailey & Ortega-Ortiz, 2002).  This method delivers precise positions of multiple spatially distant targets in a short amount of time.  The technique is fully non-invasive, and allows for time and cost-effective descriptions of dolphin habitat use patterns at all times of day (Würsig et al. 1991; Piwetz et al. 2012).  Examples of modern statistical techniques to describe movements relative to habitat and anthropogenic influences are described in Gailey et al. (2007) and Lundquist et al. (2012).

10.2.4.9   Land-based observation and theodolite tracking station will be set up at two locations facing east/south/west on the southern slopes of the island of Sha Chau, and an audit location for SkyPier HSF facing north, northeast, and northwest, at Lung Kwu Chau.  The proposed location (D and E) are shown with position coordinates, height of station and approximate distances of consistent theodolite tracking capabilities for CWDs in Table 10‑1 and shown in Drawing MCL/P132/EMA/10-004.

Table 10‑1:       Land-based Survey Station Details

Station

Location

Geographical

Coordinates

Station

Height (m)

Approx. Tracking

Distance (km)

D

 

Sha Chau

 

22° 20’ 43.5” N

113° 53’ 24.66” E

45.66

2

E

Lung Kwu Chau

22° 22’ 44.83” N

113° 53’ 0.2” E

70.40

3

10.2.4.10 The frequency of the theodolite tracking will be two days per month at both the Sha Chau station and Lung Kwu Chau station during the 6-month baseline monitoring and during the initial six months of implementation of the SkyPier HSF Plan.  The monitoring frequency during the construction phase for marine works will be one day per month at both Sha Chau station and Lung Kwu Chau station. The monitoring frequency and stations in the construction phase are subject to review based on the baseline monitoring findings and a review of the effectiveness of the SkyPier HSF Plan route diversion and speed control measures during the first six months that these are in effect. Surveys will be undertaken during a period of about 5-6 hours per day from the monitoring stations, with some days longer than this but others truncated due to weather-related deterioration of sighting conditions.  Three surveyors (one theodolite operator, one computer operator, and one person scanning with binoculars) will be involved in each survey. Observers will search for dolphins using unaided eyes and handheld binoculars (7X50). A theodolite tracking session will be initiated when an individual CWD or group of CWD is located.  Where possible, a distinguishable individual will be selected, based on colouration, within the group.  The focal individual is then continuously tracked via the theodolite, with a position recorded each time the dolphin surfaces. If an individual cannot be positively distinguished from other members, the group will be tracked by recording positions based on a central point within the group whenever the CWDs surface (Bejder, 2005; Martinez, 2010). Tracking continues until animals are lost from view, move beyond the range of reliable visibility (>1-3 km, depending on station height), or environmental conditions obstruct visibility (e.g., intense haze, Beaufort sea state >4, or sunset), at which the research effort will be terminated.  During the baseline phase, in addition to the tracking of CWDs, all vessels that move within 2-3 km of the station will be tracked, with effort made to obtain at least two positions for each vessel.  It is anticipated that this will not be feasible during the construction phase in the 3RS construction area, and possibly for some space outside this area also, due to the anticipated high volume of construction-related traffic.  

Theodolite Tracking Data Analysis

10.2.4.11 Theodolite tracking will include focal follows of CWD groups and vessels (the latter to be undertaken when possible). Focal follow data will be filtered to include only CWD tracks with greater than 2 positional fixes and 10 minutes or greater in duration. The ten minute window has been statistically validated for theodolite tracking analyses (Gailey et al. 2007, Lundquist 2012), and such a logical bound is also described in Turchin (1998).  If two consecutive dolphin tracks are more than 5 min apart, they will be split and analysed separately.  A broad time of day category is assigned for each track (morning = first position recorded before 12 pm; afternoon = first position recorded at 12 pm or later). CWD response variables that will be calculated for each track include mean reorientation rate, swimming speed and linearity. Reorientation rate is the degrees per minute of changes in direction of a tracked individual or group of CWDs. Mean swimming speed is calculated by dividing the distance travelled by the duration between two consecutive positions (Gailey et al. 2007). Linearity is an index of net movement ranging from 0 to 1, with 0 equating to no net movement and 1 equating to straight line movement. It is calculated by taking the sum of distances travelled for each leg and dividing by the net distance between the first and last fix of a track.

10.2.4.12 In order to evaluate variation in CWD movement patterns in the presence of vessels, it is necessary to establish a distance threshold. Consistent with general practice and the data gathered for the EIA of this study, when vessels are within 500 m of the focal individual or group, they will be considered present. The 500 m threshold was chosen since Sims et al. (2012) showed that most vessels exceeded background noise when less than 500m away, but not at greater distances.  The threshold has been used in other marine mammal situations for similar reasons and direct measurement of animal reactions, such as in Lundquist et al. (2012) for southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). As it is not possible to record geographic locations of all targets simultaneously, positions for CWDs and vessels will be interpolated post hoc (i.e. during analysis in the lab), allowing for a more precise estimation of vessel distances from dolphins at a given time.  All types of vessels within 500m are considered, including high speed ferries.  The high speed ferries travel through the area much more rapidly than fishing, recreational, industrial vessels carrying cargo and will therefore be noted and assessed as a separate category.  

10.2.4.13 ArcMap will be used to plot CWD and vessel positions, Microsoft Excel will be used to conduct computational analysis of leg speed, and linearity and R statistical software will be used to perform statistical analyses. Data will be tested for normality and transformed if residuals are not normally distributed. Because dolphin focal follows tend to vary in duration, each CWD track is split into 10-minute segments. In order to reduce pseudo-replication, analysis will be run to determine the temporal lag at which two segments from the same focal group are no longer auto-correlated. Univariate statistical analyses (one-factor Analysis of Variance, ANOVA) will be run to evaluate variation between factors.

10.2.4.14 Similar to vessel-based surveys, seasonal differences in relative CWD occurrence and use of the study area will be examined for land-based surveys, using both the solar seasons (Winter: Dec-Feb, Spring: Mar-May, Summer: Jun-Aug, Autumn: Sep-Nov) and oceanographic seasons (Dry: Oct-Mar, Wet: Apr-Sep; see Chen et al. 2010). In addition, behavioural descriptions and potential avoidance/association by CWDs relative to vessels or other on-water anthropogenic activities will be analysed by multi-variate analyses, as in Gailey et al. (2007) and Lundquist et al (2012). 

Passive Acoustic Monitoring

10.2.4.15 Acoustic data will be gathered to listen for CWDs occurrence patterns and to obtain anthropogenic noise information simultaneously. This work involves a type of PAM (Wiggins and Hildebrand 2007) termed an Ecological Acoustic Recorder (EAR) (Lammers et al. 2008), with bottom-mounted broad-band recording capability operable from 20 Hz (for lower frequency anthropogenic noise) up to a flat response of 32kHz (for echolocating and communicating CWDs).  An EAR is proposed to be positioned at south of Sha Chau Island to coincide with the land based theodolite survey (Drawing No. MCL/P132/EMA/10-005). The duty cycle of the PAM will be 20% for the baseline and construction phases.

10.2.4.16 Analysis (by a specialized team of acousticians) involves manually browsing through every acoustic recording and logging the occurrence of vessel transits and other unusual sounds. This approach for data analysis is adopted because generally high ambient noise conditions in these waters have meant that an automatic algorithm cannot be reliably used to detect dolphin sounds.  All data therefore need to be re-played by computer and listened to by human ears for accurate assessment of dolphin group presence. Vessels will be logged when discrete transits passing the EAR can be differentiated from background noise, and thus there can be more than one vessel detection per file. 

10.2.4.17 Comparisons of CWD and vessel sounds during theodolite tracks of those dolphins and vessels will be made post hoc, that is after both sets of data have been separately analysed in the laboratory, positions are known, and the positions can be compared to loudness and frequencies of those sounds.

10.2.4.18 A review of CWD sightings from the land-based survey data in relation to the EAR device will also be undertaken to provide data on the approximate locations of the CWDs at the time their signals are detected. Thus, overlaps of land-based CWD sightings and the EAR recorded sounds of CWDs will be analysed.

10.2.5    Review of Construction Phase CWD Monitoring Programme

10.2.5.1   Subject to details of the marine construction programme established during the detailed design stage, the aforementioned CWD monitoring programme will be reviewed by the ET.  Where the CWD monitoring programme requires revision or updating according to the detailed construction programme, the ET will revise or update the monitoring programme accordingly, and the revised monitoring programme will be verified by IEC before submission to EPD and AFCD for approval prior to commencement of the marine construction works.

10.2.6    Cumulative Impacts for Travel Corridors/ Areas and Connectivity between Core Habitat Areas

10.2.6.1   It is clear from past and present data that the area north of the existing airport is used for a variety of CWD behavioural functions, including travel between Northwest and Northeast Lantau.  The longer that cumulative construction activities exist in and near this general area, the greater will be the effect on efficient habitat use of CWD, with both the project and the HZMB Hong Kong Link Road (HKLR) / HKBCF / Tuen Mun-Chek Lap Kok Link (TM-CLKL) projects forcing the CWDs to move further north towards the Tuen Mun area.  However, the corridor/ area between the project and waters to the north should still be available and useable for CWDs to transit between western and eastern waters north of the airport.  As these implications could increase with all the projects being constructed and implemented concurrently, a long term monitoring programme is recommended, consistent with that being undertaken by AFCD (i.e. by using vessel transect monitoring) as discussed in Section 10.2.4 above.

10.3    Detailed Implementation of Dolphin Exclusion Zone

10.3.1    Dolphin Exclusion Zone Plan

10.3.1.1   According to Environmental Permit No. EP-489/2014 Condition 3.1(v), detailed implementation of Dolphin Exclusion Zone (DEZ) shall be included in this updated EM&A Manual. This section provides the technical guidelines for the implementation of DEZ. The actual marine construction activities that require the implementation of DEZ were determined in the DEZ Plan, which was prepared by the ET based on an objective assessment of noise levels and noise intensities from different marine construction activities as methodologies were finalised.

10.3.1.2   A DEZ with 250 m radius from the boundary of the works will be established for marine construction activities that require the implementation of DEZ. The DEZ Plan has been submitted to EPD for approval at least 1 month prior to commencement of construction activities requiring DEZ. The DEZ serves as a short-term approach to provide appropriate and immediate action should CWDs be sighted within the DEZ for construction activities requiring a DEZ. Should the Action Level for CWD monitoring be exceeded, the DEZ monitoring area shall be increased to 500 m for daytime works until the ET notify the resume of the 250 m DEZ. Details of the DEZ are described below:

10.3.2    Daytime Monitoring of Dolphin Exclusion Zone

10.3.2.1   In the 3RS EIA Report, the impact significances of acoustic disturbance from daytime and night-time reclamation related construction works were evaluated as “Low-Moderate” and “Moderate” respectively. DEZs have been adopted in Hong Kong for other previous projects involving similar marine works activities as the 3RS project and are therefore proposed as a precautionary and a mitigation measure respectively to address the impacts identified from certain daytime and night time marine works activities.

10.3.2.2   A DEZ set at a certain distance from potentially harmful marine works activities (e.g. certain marine works known to be very noisy) will be established during all periods of each of the marine construction activities requiring a DEZ. The DEZ monitoring will be carried out from the shore or on a stationary barge or vessel depending on the type of construction activity requiring the DEZ, with an unobstructed elevated view of the DEZ, by using naked eyes and occasionally with the aid of binoculars (e.g. Steiner Navigator 7X50 HD-stabilized Compass or model with similar or more advanced specification) for confirmation. The actual monitoring locations will be proposed in the DEZ Plan which will be determined by the ET and thereafter subject to update based on the marine construction programme.

10.3.2.3   At least two dolphin observers will carry out the monitoring on shift (e.g. rotate every 30 minutes), in order to minimise fatigue.  The dolphin observers must be adequately trained and qualified, preferably with a degree in biological sciences or equivalent, experience in observing dolphins, and basic knowledge of literature on CWDs in Hong Kong. The dolphin observers should be appointed by, but must be independent of, the construction contractor. The dolphin observers shall be trained by the ET, who shall also provide regular competence checking on the effective implementation of the DEZ.

10.3.2.4   Prior to the commencement of construction activities that require the implementation of a DEZ, the DEZ will be thoroughly scanned for dolphins for an initial period of 30 minutes. If dolphins are observed in the DEZ, the dolphin observers will immediately inform the Site Supervisor or relevant person through mobile phone or handheld transceivers to delay the commencement of the construction activities in the works area within the DEZ, until the dolphins leave and the DEZ is continuously free of dolphin for a period of 30 minutes.

10.3.2.5   If dolphins are observed within the DEZ during construction works, the dolphin observers will inform the Site Supervisor or relevant person through mobile phone or handheld transceivers to cease the construction activities within the works area enclosed by the DEZ. The dolphin observers will continue to monitor the dolphins. When the dolphins leave the DEZ and the DEZ is clear of dolphins for a period of 30 minutes, the dolphin observers will inform the Site Supervisor or relevant person that the construction activities within the DEZ could be resumed.

10.3.2.6   If dolphins are observed in close vicinity but outside the DEZ, the dolphin observers will also inform the Site Supervisor about the presence of the dolphins. The dolphin observers will remain in position and closely observe the movement of the dolphins as well as searching for the appearance of any other dolphins within the DEZ.

10.3.2.7   All vessel captains involved in construction activities in and around the DEZ shall be advised to pay special attention to the presence of dolphins around the DEZ and to use appropriate slow speed when travelling within or near to the DEZ area in order to reduce chance of collision with or other adverse impacts to the dolphins.

10.3.2.8   In case of injury or live-stranded dolphins being found within the DEZ, the dolphin observers will immediately inform the Site Supervisor to suspend the construction activities within the works area around the DEZ and contact AFCD through “1823” marine mammal stranding hotline.

10.3.2.9   Each DEZ monitoring team has to fill in a data record sheet for data keeping purpose when they are on duty. General information not limited to those listed below will be recorded at the beginning of the monitoring:

     Date;

     Surveyors;

     Monitoring Location;

     Construction Activity;

     Weather;

     Beaufort Sea State;

     Commencement Time of Monitoring; and

     Commencement Time of Construction Activity.

10.3.2.10 In case dolphins are detected within the DEZ, the information included but not limited to the following will be recorded:

     Sighting No.;

     Group Size;

     First Sighting Time within DEZ;

     Last Sighting Time within DEZ;

     Cessation Time of Construction Work;

     Re-start Time of Construction Work;

     Location of Dolphins; and

     Behaviour.

10.3.3    Night-time Monitoring of Dolphin Exclusion Zone

10.3.3.1   The PAM result during the 3RS EIA study suggested that night-time CWD activity in the 3rd runway footprint area may be more extensive than previously thought, and therefore implications for disturbance and loss of area could be higher than the daytime use alone would indicate. Therefore, the implementation of an effective DEZ monitoring scheme during night-time periods was also recommended in the 3RS EIA Report.

10.3.3.2   Night-time DEZ monitoring will be conducted by using night vision device (NVD) that greatly enhance the small amount of available light at night to make visual observing of CWDs possible. The NVD is suggested to be in the form of hand-held, head-mounted or tripod-mounted units depending on the location of the DEZ monitoring station. A NVD from ATN, model PS15-CGTI Night Vision Goggles, with 3X lens, has proved practicable for night-time DEZ monitoring undertaken during the DCM field trial. Therefore, the same model or NVD with similar or more advanced specification and performance shall be selected for night-time DEZ monitoring based on availability in the market.

10.3.3.3   Similar to daytime DEZ monitoring, the use of NVD to assist the implementation of DEZs shall be carried out from the shore or a stationary barge or other vessel, and experienced personnel shall be used, dedicated 100% to the dolphin searching effort (i.e. not ancillary to other activities). Night-time DEZ monitoring will follow a similar procedure to the daytime DEZ monitoring except for the complete use of NVD over naked eyes for scanning. It is recommended that two night-time observers scan the exclusion zone, with appropriate staggered rest periods to avoid eye fatigue and general fatigue.

10.3.3.4   All selected NVD shall be tested before actual use for night-time DEZ monitoring. This test is to be conducted by experienced dolphin-monitoring researchers, preferably at a site or sites where dolphins occur with regularity and can be tracked by theodolite in the late afternoon hours, so that visual day-time tracking can be “handed off” to night-time NVD sighting as darkness descends. All tests shall be witnessed and verified by the AAHK/ PM, ET and IEC. Only after such dedicated testing has provided confidence that the NVD technique allows for reliable detection of dolphin at night shall the use of NVD be adopted. The feasibility of using PAM involving the use of hydrophones or automated cetacean detectors with real-time data capability could be explored by the Contractor for the DEZ monitoring in case the NVD is found to be ineffective for night-time CWD detection. Alternative night-time monitoring devices, including using PAM should be witnessed and verified by the AAHK/ PM, ET and IEC with satisfactory detection, prior to the adoption for implementation of night-time DEZ monitoring.

10.4    Acoustic Decoupling

10.4.1.1   According to Environmental Permit No. EP-489/2014 Condition 3.1(v), detailed implementation of acoustic decoupling shall be included in this updated EM&A Manual. This section provides the technical guidelines for the acoustic decoupling devices to be implemented to minimise the indirect disturbance to CWD during marine construction.

10.4.1.2   CWD whistle communication frequencies in the 4-8 kHz octave band are well above the frequencies produced by most large vessels used in shipping and marine construction activities.  Based on available experience in Hong Kong, these types of vessels are not considered to be a significant source of acoustic disturbance. Main engines of the proposed working vessels are therefore not considered to be a significant source of acoustic disturbance and will not be considered as source of noise and vibration. However, there is still a small possibility that noise would be transmitted from the noisy Powered Mechanical Equipment (PME) on vessels (i.e. air compressors, generators and winch generators) into the sea.  Therefore, acoustic decoupling measures for noisy equipment which are not embedded on vessels are required to minimise the possible noise impact on CWD / marine ecology.

10.4.1.3   Noise isolation pad could be one of the acoustic decoupling devices to separate the noisy PME from the deck or hull in order to reduce noise transmission to the sea via the vessel.  The size of the isolation pad for the identified noisy PME should be large enough to cover the whole base with thickness of at least 24 mm. A schematic diagram of noise isolation pad is shown Drawing MCL/P132/EMA/10-006.

10.4.1.4   The noisy PME on vessels should be fixed on noise isolation pad instead of directly mount on the deck.  Contractor should ensure the foundation of equipment is flat and level prior to installation.  Adequate clearance all around the PME should be kept to avoid direct vibration transmission to other materials and machineries.

10.5    Action/Limit Levels and Event Action Plan for CWD

10.5.1.1   As mentioned in Section 10.2.1.5 and the EIA Report, it is expected that the 3RS reclamation activities would result in the temporary movement of CWDs away from 3RS works areas during the construction period, and this may be indicated by a further decline in CWD abundance in the Northwest Lantau survey area over the period of construction. As part of the set of required mitigation measures for the construction of the project, an Event and Action Plan framework has been developed that is intended to detect any deterioration in ambient environmental quality that could endanger CWDs or result in an overall decline in CWD numbers in Lantau waters (NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL) as a whole below a certain threshold level. Appropriate remedial actions are described and would be taken as part of the plan, intended to prevent unacceptable deterioration in environmental quality or a reduction in CWD numbers in Lantau waters as a whole below the Limit Level that may be caused by 3RS construction works.  

10.5.1.2   The Event and Action Plan has been reviewed and consolidated based on the data from the baseline CWD monitoring surveys, with reference to historical data on some key parameters that are indicative of the health of the CWD population (and specifically the portion that uses Hong Kong waters as part of their range), and can be monitored as part of regular EM&A efforts during construction, providing early warning when particularly serious impacts may be occurred. The results would be used as a management tool, so that if the decline in overall CWD encounter rate is determined to be from the 3RS construction process, appropriate measures may then be triggered / considered to minimise possible impacts with short term response to events after reviewing the monitoring data for each month. A set of criteria that may trigger certain identified actions have been developed and are detailed in the following sections.

10.5.2    Action Response Approach

10.5.2.1   The approach proposed for formulating the AL and LL for construction phase CWD monitoring involves using the encounter rate. The encounter rate provides a direct indicator of the health of CWD population and it can be determined from the EM&A effort (i.e. CWD monitoring). Actions will be taken when these levels in the overall Lantau waters covering NWL, AW, NEL, WL and SWL have been triggered.

10.5.2.2   Both the Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphin Sightings (STG) and Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphins (ANI) from the baseline survey are adopted as the parameters for determining the AL and LL. The calculation of the CWD encounter rates for determining AL and LL made use of the dataset from the CWD Baseline Monitoring undertaken for this project as part of the EM&A requirement under the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO). The formulas for calculating STG and ANI encounter rates are shown below:

Quarterly Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphin Sightings (STG)

 

Quarterly Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphins (ANI)

(Notes:      1. Only data collected under Beaufort 3 or below condition was used;

2. A quarter refers to three survey months, and data collected within a quarter was counted and calculated to obtain the total no. of on-effort sightings, total no. of dolphins from on-effort sightings and total amount of survey effort)

10.5.2.3   According to the approved 3RS EIA Report, 3RS construction works are expected to result in CWDs temporarily moving away from the project works area during the construction phase. The use of the encounter rate approach, making use of the quarterly dolphin vessel survey findings to compare with baseline STG and ANI values provides a short to medium term frequency method for monitoring and responding appropriately to changes in CWD abundance as project works progress. It is proposed that AL and LL are established for Lantau waters covering NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL as a whole, as it has been anticipated in the EIA Report that the number of CWDs in North Lantau waters will decline due to the project, and CWDs may move to other areas around Lantau including West Lantau and Southwest Lantau. A combined encounter rate can present a general picture of the entire waters around the Project area and Lantau.

10.5.2.4   Natural seasonal fluctuations of CWD encounter rates across the four seasons may cause non-project related triggering of the AL and/or the LL, therefore historical CWD data has been reviewed to take into account the effect of seasonal fluctuations on the CWD encounter rate. The seasonal variations of CWD quarterly encounter rates based on the AFCD long term marine mammals monitoring over the past six years covering the NEL, NWL, WL and SWL waters were reviewed. The findings showed that in general, the first quarter or winter/spring (Q1, i.e. January to March) of the year is the low season for CWD encounters, with the values of STG and ANI consistently being the lowest during Q1 compared to other quarters over the years with a decreasing trend. The CWD encounter rates generally increase in late spring/ early summer (Q2, i.e. April to June). The CWD baseline monitoring conducted between mid-December 2015 and mid-June 2016 for the 3RS project shows a similar trend (i.e. encounter rates are lowest in during Q1 (winter/spring) and increase during Q2 (late spring/early summer).

10.5.2.5   The dataset of the CWD Baseline Monitoring for this project has been taken mainly during Q1 to Q2 of 2016, during which time the quarterly encounter rates for STG and ANI were collected in the Q1, thereby capturing the low season. The dataset is therefore suitable for establishing the AL and/or LL for future impact monitoring. As the baseline survey did not cover the full year to cover the peak season encounter rates, the AL and/or LL is subject to further review when a full year data set is collected. The criteria for triggering the AL and LL during CWD impact monitoring are detailed in Table 10‑2 and Table 10‑3 below.

Table 10‑2:       Approach for Defining Action Level and Limit Level

 

NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL as a Whole

Action Level

Running quarterly* STG & ANI < low season quarterly encounter rates derived from baseline monitoring data

Limit Level

Two consecutive running quarterly^ (3-month) STG & ANI < low season quarterly encounter rates derived from baseline monitoring data

Table 10‑3:       Derived Values of Action Level and Limit Level

 

NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL as a Whole

Action Level

Running quarterly* STG < 1.86 & ANI < 9.35

Limit Level

Two consecutive running quarterly^ (3-month) STG < 1.86 & ANI < 9.35

[Notes for Table 10-2 and Table 10-3:
*Action Level – running quarterly STG & ANI will be calculated from the three preceding survey months; If both quarterly STG and ANI are lower than the baseline values 1.86 and 9.35 respectively the AL will be triggered.
^Limit Level – two consecutive running quarterly encounter rates will be reviewed; If both STG and ANI for two consecutive running quarters are lower than the baseline values, the Limit Level will be triggered.]

10.5.2.6   The adoption of the running quarter encounter rate approach will allow a short to medium term response to events that may trigger the AL / LL after reviewing the monitoring data for each month. This is preferable to the traditional quarterly encounter rate approach whereby AL / LL may only be triggered after 3 to 4 months of impact monitoring. Therefore, the running quarter encounter rate approach is expected to be more effective in mitigating short term effects that may arise from 3RS construction phase impacts.

10.5.2.7   To further strengthen the Event and Action Plan for CWD, it is recommended that when the first 12 months CWD monitoring data has been collected, a review of the annual encounter rate will be undertaken. This will also include a review of monitoring results during the seasons when CWD encounter rates are known to peak, as peak seasons have not been covered during the 6-month baseline monitoring period. Should any updates to the Event and Action Plan be required after this review, agreement will be sought from the EPD / AFCD after certification by the ETL and verification by the IEC prior to implementation of the updated Event and Action Plan.

10.5.3    Event and Action Plan for CWD

10.5.3.1   Details of events and actions corresponding to the AL and LLs are presented in Table 10-4 while Action and Limit Levels may be further refined after the initial 12-month monitoring data be collected.

Table 10-4:       Event and Action Plan for CWD

 

Action

Event

Dolphin Expert / ETL

IEC

AAHK / PM

Contractor

Action Level

1. Check monitoring data;

2. Repeat data analysis to confirm findings;

3. Review all available and relevant data covered in the EM&A and the survey data collected at the Lantau waters, i.e. NWL, SWL, WL and NEL to ascertain the exceedance is due to natural variation or works related;

4. Identify source(s) of impact;

5. Inform the AAHK/ PM, IEC and Contractor;

6. Instruct an increase in the DEZ area to be monitored from 250m to 500m for daytime works; and

7. Increase site inspection and audit frequency to ensure all the dolphin protective and/or precautionary measures (e.g. consider enhancing dolphin watch patrols, phasing of construction works, review of construction methods, etc.) and other relevant measures are fully and properly implemented.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET and the Contractor;

2. Check the data review outcome by ET with the ETL; and

3. Conduct additional site inspection and audit with ET to ensure all the dolphin protective measures are fully and properly implemented and advise AAHK / PM the audit results and findings accordingly.

1. Discuss the need for increase site inspection and audit frequency proposed by ET with the ETL, IEC, and the Contractor; and

2. Check the audit results and findings from ET and IEC.

1. Inform the AAHK /PM and confirm notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Conduct site inspection and audit with the ETL and IEC; and

3. Ensure all the dolphin protective measures are fully and properly Implemented.

Limit Level

1. Check monitoring data;

2. Repeat statistical data analysis to confirm findings;

3. Review all available and relevant data covered in the EM&A and the survey data collected at the Lantau waters, i.e. NWL, SWL, WL and NEL to ascertain the exceedance is due to natural variation or project related;

4. Identify source(s) of impact;

5. Inform the AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractor;

6. Repeat review with the Contractor representatives and IEC to ensure all the dolphin protective measures are fully and properly implemented and advise on additional measures if necessary;

7. Review previous occurrence of non-compliance events to investigate if there is a longer term trend that needs attention; and

8. ET provides evidence of the suspected source of impact that may be caused by any of the construction activity under works contracts of the project, ET arranges a meeting to discuss with AAHK / PM, IEC and Contractors on the need for further monitoring and/or any other potential mitigation measures (e.g. consider modified design, or consider controlling or temporarily stopping relevant marine works etc.), consultation with EPD and AFCD and submit to IEC any proposal on additional dolphin monitoring and/or mitigation measures for certification where necessary.

1. Check monitoring data submitted by ET and Contractor;

2. Discussing monitoring results and findings with the ET, Dolphin Experts and the Contractor;

3. Review with the Contractor representatives and ET to ensure all the dolphin protective measures are fully and properly implemented;

4. Discuss further mitigation measures with AAHK / PM, ET and Contractor;

5. Review proposals for additional monitoring and any other mitigation measures submitted by ET and Contractor and advise AAHK / PM of the results and findings accordingly; and

6. Supervise / audit the implementation of additional monitoring and/or any other mitigation measures and advise AAHK / PM the results and findings accordingly.

1. Convene an expert panel involving IEC (and dolphin experts), EPD and AFCD to review the situation and determine any necessary actions based on the options / mitigation details as proposed by the ET/ Contractors.

2. Discuss further mitigation measures with the ET, IEC and Contractor; and

3. Supervise the implementation of additional monitoring and/or any other mitigation measures.

1. Inform the AAHK/ PM and confirm notification of the non-compliance in writing;

2. Discuss further mitigation measures with the ETL, IEC and AAHK / PM;

3. Review with ET and IEC again to ensure all the dolphin protective measures are fully and properly implemented and carried out additional measures when advised by ET and agreed by AAHK / PM and IEC;

4. Jointly submit with ET to IEC and expert panel a proposal of additional dolphin monitoring and/or any other mitigation measures when necessary; and

5. Implement the agreed additional dolphin monitoring and/or any other mitigation measures.

10.6    Ecological Audit Requirement

10.6.1    Baseline, Construction and Post-Construction Phases

10.6.1.1   Specific marine ecological mitigation and precautionary measures are proposed for the construction phase in the EIA Report.  The Project Design Team and Contractor should be responsible for the design and implementation of these measures under the supervision of the AAHK / PM and monitored by the ET.  The implementation schedule of the recommended ecological mitigation measures is presented in Appendix C. The key construction phase mitigation and precautionary measures for the CWDs are:

    Acoustic decoupling of noisy construction equipment – Air compressors and other noisy equipment (i.e. generators and winch generators) that must be mounted on construction vessels will be acoustically-decoupled to the greatest extent as feasible, for instance by using noise isolation pad.  These noise isolation pad should be made of materials having a density in excess of 250 kg/m3 of thickness at least 24mm with vibration absorbing efficiency of at least 10 dB;

    Construction vessel speed limits, predefined vessel routing and skipper trainingA “Marine Travel Routes and Management Plan for Construction and Associated Vessels” has been prepared by the ET and submitted to the relevant Authority according to EP Condition 2.9 no later than 3 months prior to the commencement of construction for approval, to define the routings for construction vessels within Hong Kong waters;

    Dolphin Exclusion Zones – DEZ will be implemented during certain marine construction works known to be very noisy (e.g. ground improvement, water jetting works for submarine cables diversion, open trench dredging at the field joint locations and seawall construction, etc.). Details of the actual marine construction activities that require the implementation of DEZ will be determined in the DEZ Plan when the detailed design of the construction works are available;

    Spill response plan