Expansion of Hong Kong
International Airport into a
Three-Runway System

Construction Phase Quarterly EM&A Report
No.29 (1 January to 31 March 2023)

June 2023

 

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Contents

Abbreviations

Executive summary

1       Introduction

1.1      Background

1.2      Scope of this Report

1.3      Project Organisation

1.4      Contact information for the Project

1.5      Summary of Construction Works

1.6      Summary of EM&A Programme Requirements

2       Environmental Monitoring and Auditing

2.1      Air Quality Monitoring

2.1.1         Action and Limit Levels

2.1.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.1.3         Conclusion

2.2      Noise Monitoring

2.2.1         Action and Limit Levels

2.2.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.2.3         Conclusion

2.3      Water Quality Monitoring

2.3.1         Action and Limit Levels

2.3.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.3.3         Conclusion

2.4      Waste Monitoring

2.4.1         Action and Limit Levels

2.4.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.4.3         Marine Sediment Management

2.5      Chinese White Dolphin Monitoring

2.5.1         Action and Limit Levels

2.5.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.6      Sewage Flow Monitoring

2.6.1         Brief Summary of the Agreed Method

2.6.2         Desk-Based Monitoring Result

2.7      Environmental Site Inspection

2.7.1         Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures

2.7.2         Land Contamination Assessment

2.8      Audit of SkyPier High Speed Ferries

2.9      Audit of Construction and Associated Vessels

2.10     Review of the Key Assumptions Adopted in the EIA Report

3       Report on Non-compliance, Complaints, Notifications of Summons and Prosecutions

3.1      Compliance with Other Statutory Environmental Requirements

3.2      Analysis and Interpretation of Complaints, Notification of Summons and Status of Prosecutions

3.2.1         Complaints

3.2.2         Notifications of Summons or Status of Prosecution

3.3      Cumulative Statistics

4       Conclusion and Recommendation

 

Tables

Table 1.1: Contact Information of Key Personnel 7

Table 1.2: Contact Information of the Project 10

Table 1.3: Summary of Status for All Environmental Aspects under the Updated EM&A Manual 11

Table 2.1: Impact Air Quality Monitoring Stations  14

Table 2.2: Percentage of Air Quality Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels  14

Table 2.3: General Meteorological Condition during Impact Air Quality Monitoring  14

Table 2.4: Impact Noise Monitoring Stations  15

Table 2.5: Percentage of Noise Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels  15

Table 2.6: General Meteorological Condition during Impact Noise Monitoring  16

Table 2.7: Monitoring Locations and Parameters for Impact Water Quality Monitoring  16

Table 2.8: Action and Limit Levels for General Water Quality Monitoring  17

Table 2.9: The Control and Impact Stations during Flood Tide and Ebb Tide for General Water Quality Monitoring  17

Table 2.10: Percentage of Water Quality Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels  18

Table 2.11: General Weather Condition and Sea Condition during Impact Water Quality Monitoring  18

Table 2.12: Summary of SS Compliance Status (Mid-Flood Tide) 20

Table 2.13: Action and Limit Levels for Construction Waste  20

Table 2.14: Construction Waste Statistics  21

Table 2.15: Land-based Theodolite Tracking Survey Station Details  22

Table 2.16: Derived Values of Action Level and Limit Level for Chinese White Dolphin Monitoring  22

Table 2.17: Summary of Number of CWD Sightings and Number of Dolphins for the Same Quarter Last Year, Previous Quarter, and Current Reporting Period  23

Table 2.18: Summary of Monthly and Running Quarterly STG and ANI of Chinese White Dolphin for the Same Quarter Last Year, Previous Quarter, and Current Reporting Period  25

Table 2.19: Summary of Photo Identification  29

Table 2.20: Summary of Survey Effort and CWD Group of Land-based Theodolite Tracking Survey  31

Table 2.21: Landscape and Visual – Construction Phase Audit Summary  36

Table 2.22: Summary of the Number of Retained, Transplanted and To-be-transplanted Trees in the Reporting Period  37

Table 2.23: Summary of the Tree Status Updated in the Reporting Period  37

Table 2.24: Summary of the Transplanted Trees Updated in the Reporting Period  37

Table 2.25: Photos of the Existing Transplanted Trees Inspected in the Reporting Period  39

Table 3.1: Summary of Environmental Complaints  42

Table 3.2: Statistics for Valid Exceedances for the Environmental Monitoring  42

Table 3.3: Statistics for Non-compliance, Complaints, Notifications of Summons and Prosecution  43

 

Figures

Figure 1.1

Locations of Key Construction Activities

Figure 2.1

Locations of Air and Noise Monitoring Stations and Chek Lap Kok Wind Station

Figure 2.2

Water Quality Monitoring Stations

Figure 2.3

Vessel based Dolphin Monitoring Transects in Construction, Post-Construction, and Operation Phases

Figure 2.4

Land based Dolphin Monitoring Locations in Baseline and Construction Phases

Figure 2.5

Sightings Distribution of Chinese White Dolphins

Figure 2.6

Sighting Locations of Chinese White Dolphins with Different Group Sizes

Figure 2.7

Sighting Locations of Chinese White Dolphins Engaged in Different Behaviours

Figure 2.8

Sighting Locations of Mother-calf Pairs

Figure 2.9

Plots of First Sightings of All CWD Groups from Land-based Stations

Figure 2.10

Location for Passive Acoustic Monitoring

Figure 2.11

Schematic Diagram for Sewerage System Flow Monitoring

Figure 2.12

Sewerage System Collecting Sewage from Airport

 

 

 

 

Appendices  

Appendix A

Project Organisation Chart

Appendix B

Environmental Mitigation Implementation Schedule (EMIS) for Construction Phase

Appendix C

Monitoring Results

 

Abbreviations

3RS

Three-Runway System

AAHK

Airport Authority Hong Kong

AECOM

AECOM Asia Company Limited

AFCD

Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department

AIS

Automatic Information System

ANI

Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphins

APM

Automated People Mover

AW

Airport West

BHS

Baggage Handling System

C&D

Construction and Demolition

CAP

Contamination Assessment Plan

CAR

Contamination Assessment Report

CTCC

Construction Traffic Control Centre

CWD

Chinese White Dolphin

DCM

Deep Cement Mixing

DEZ

Dolphin Exclusion Zone

DO

Dissolved Oxygen

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EM&A

Environmental Monitoring & Audit

EMIS

Environmental Mitigation Implementation Schedule

EP

Environmental Permit

EPD

Environmental Protection Department

EPSS

Emergency Power Supply Systems

ET

Environmental Team

FCZ

Fish Culture Zone

HKBCF

Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities

HKIA

Hong Kong International Airport

HSF

High Speed Ferry

IEC

Independent Environmental Checker

LKC

Lung Kwu Chau

MMHK

Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited

MMWP

Marine Mammal Watching Plan

MSS

Maritime Surveillance System

MTRMP-CAV

Updated Marine Travel Routes and Management Plan for Construction and Associated Vessel

NEL

Northeast Lantau

NWL

Northwest Lantau

PAM

Passive Acoustic Monitoring

SC

Sha Chau

SCZ

Speed Control Zone

SCLKCMP

Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park

SS

Suspended Solids

STG

Encounter Rate of Number of Dolphin Sightings

SWL

Southwest Lantau

T2

Terminal 2

The Manual

The Updated EM&A Manual

The Project

The Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System

The SkyPier Plan

Marine Travel Routes and Management Plan for High Speed Ferries of SkyPier

TSP

Total Suspended Particulates

WL

West Lantau

WMP

Waste Management Plan

 

Executive summary

The “Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System” (the Project) serves to meet the future air traffic demands at Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA). On 7 November 2014, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report (Register No.: AEIAR-185/2014) for the Project was approved and an Environmental Permit (EP) (Permit No.: EP-489/2014) was issued for the construction and operation of the Project.

Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) commissioned Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited (MMHK) to undertake the role of Environmental Team (ET) for carrying out the Environmental Monitoring & Audit (EM&A) works during the construction phase of the Project in accordance with the Updated EM&A Manual (the Manual).

This is the 29th Construction Phase Quarterly EM&A Report for the Project which summarises the monitoring results and audit findings of the EM&A programme during the reporting period from 1 January 2023 to 31 March 2023.  

Key Activities in the Reporting Period

The key activities of the Project carried out in the reporting period included reclamation works and land-based works. Works in the reclamation areas included seawall construction, filling and land-based ground improvement works, together with runway, taxiways, concourse and associated works. Land-based works on existing airport island involved mainly airfield works, Terminal 2 expansion works, modification and tunnel work for Automated People Mover (APM) and Baggage Handling System (BHS), and preparation work for utilities, with activities include road and drainage works, cable ducting, demolition, piling, and excavation works.

EM&A Activities Conducted in the Reporting Period

The EM&A programme was undertaken in accordance with the Manual of the Project. Summary of the monitoring activities during this reporting period is presented as below:

Monitoring Activities

Number of Sessions

1-hour Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) air quality monitoring

90

Noise monitoring

52

Water quality monitoring

38

Vessel line-transect surveys for Chinese White Dolphin (CWD) monitoring

6

Land-based theodolite tracking survey effort for CWD monitoring

6

Environmental auditing works, including weekly site inspections of construction works conducted by the ET and bi-weekly site inspections conducted by the Independent Environmental Checker (IEC), audit of SkyPier High Speed Ferries (HSF), audit of construction and associated vessels, and audit of implementation of Marine Mammal Watching Plan (MMWP) and Dolphin Exclusion Zone (DEZ) Plan, were conducted in the reporting period. Based on the information including ET’s observations, records of Maritime Surveillance System (MSS), and contractors’ site records, it is noted that environmental pollution control and mitigation measures were properly implemented and construction activities of the Project in the reporting period did not introduce adverse impacts to the sensitive receivers.

In accordance with Section 6.2.1.1 of the Manual, the methodology of annual sewage flow monitoring for the existing gravity sewer from the airport discharge manhole to Tung Chung Sewage Pumping Station (TCSPS) should be prepared and submitted to EPD one year before the scheduled commencement of operation of the proposed third runway. As such, the sewage flow monitoring methodology paper was prepared, submitted and subsequently approved by EPD on 21 June 2021. As the purpose of the sewage flow monitoring is to inform the timing of commencement of planning for the sewer upgrading works, and considering that AAHK has initiated to start planning its construction, the annual monitoring was completed in 2022.

Snapshots of Good Environmental Practices in the Reporting Period

Provision of flexible curtain at the aggregate storage area entrance side to prevent dust nuisance

Provision of water spray at the main haul road

Treated marine sediment was properly covered by impervious sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key examples of good site practices implemented in the Project are highlighted as below:

1.     Provision of flexible curtain at the aggregate storage area entrance side to prevent dust nuisance.

2.     Water spraying was provided at main haul road for dust suppression purpose.

3.     Treated marine sediment was properly covered by impervious sheet.

Summary Findings of the EM&A Programme

The monitoring works for construction dust, construction noise, water quality, construction waste, landscape & visual, and CWD were conducted during the reporting period in accordance with the Manual.

Monitoring results of construction dust, construction noise, construction waste and CWD monitoring did not trigger the corresponding Action and Limit Levels in the reporting period.

The water quality monitoring results for all parameters, except suspended solids (SS), obtained during the reporting period were within the corresponding Action and Limit Levels stipulated in the EM&A programme. Relevant investigation and follow-up actions will be conducted according to EM&A programme if the corresponding Action and Limit Levels are triggered. For SS, two testing results in February and March triggered the relevant Action Level, and investigations were conducted accordingly. The investigation findings concluded that the cases were not related to the Project. To conclude, the construction activities in the reporting period did not introduce adverse impact to all water quality sensitive receivers.

The key findings of the EM&A programme during the reporting period are summarised as below:

 

Yes

No

Details

Analysis / Recommendation / Remedial Actions

Breach of Limit Level^

 

No breach of Limit Level was recorded.

Nil

Breach of Action Level^

 

No breach of Action Level was recorded.

Nil

Complaint received in the previous reporting period

 

A complaint regarding dust nuisance was received on 19 December 2022.

ET requested the related contractors to provide information regarding the complaint. The relevant contractor informed there was an alarm fault which led to the incident. The system was rectified by the contractor and no observation regarding dust nuisance was recorded during the subsequent joint site inspection and regular site inspections. All contractors were reminded to properly implement dust mitigation measures in their works sites in accordance with the implementation schedule in the Updated EM&A Manual. Hence, the case was considered closed.

Complaint received in this reporting period

 

No construction activities-related complaint was received in this reporting period.

Nil

Notification of any summons and status of prosecutions

 

No notification of summons nor prosecution was received. 

Nil

Changes that affect the EM&A

 

There was no change to the construction works that may affect the EM&A.

Nil

Remarks:

^Only triggering of Action or Limit Level found related to Project works is counted as Breach of Action or Limit Level.

According to Condition 2.6 of EP, AAHK has advanced the preparation works for the designation of the North Lantau Marine Park as recommended in the approved EIA Report.  Draft map of the proposed North Lantau Marine Park was gazetted by the Government on 3 March 2023 for 60-day public inspection. 

1        Introduction

1.1        Background

On 7 November 2014, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report (Register No.: AEIAR-185/2014) for the “Expansion of Hong Kong International Airport into a Three-Runway System” (the Project) was approved and an Environmental Permit (EP) (Permit No.: EP-489/2014) was issued for the construction and operation of the Project.

Airport Authority Hong Kong (AAHK) commissioned Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited (MMHK) to undertake the role of Environmental Team (ET) for carrying out the Environmental Monitoring & Audit (EM&A) works during the construction phase of the Project in accordance with the Updated EM&A Manual (the Manual) submitted under EP Condition 3.1[1]. AECOM Asia Company Limited (AECOM) was employed by AAHK as the Independent Environmental Checker (IEC) for the Project.

The Project covers the expansion of the existing airport into a three-runway system (3RS) with key project components comprising land formation of about 650 ha and all associated facilities and infrastructure including taxiways, aprons, aircraft stands, a passenger concourse, an expanded Terminal 2, all related airside and landside works and associated ancillary and supporting facilities. The submarine aviation fuel pipelines and submarine power cables also require diversion as part of the works.

Construction of the Project is to proceed in the general order of diversion of the submarine aviation fuel pipelines, diversion of the submarine power cables, land formation, and construction of infrastructure, followed by construction of superstructures.

The summary of construction works programme can be referred to the corresponding Monthly EM&A Reports. Description of relevant contracts in the reporting period was presented in Appendix A of the Construction Phase Monthly EM&A Report No. 84.

1.2        Scope of this Report

This is the 29th Construction Phase Quarterly EM&A Report for the Project which summarises the key findings of the EM&A programme during the reporting period from 1 January 2023 to 31 March 2023.

1.3        Project Organisation

The Project’s organisation structure is provided in Appendix A. Contact details of the key personnel have been updated and provided in Table 1.1.

 

 

 

 

Table 1.1: Contact Information of Key Personnel

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Project Manager’s Representative

(Airport Authority Hong Kong)

Principal Manager, Environmental Compliance, Sustainability

Lawrence Tsui

2183 2734

Environmental Team (ET)

(Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited)

Environmental Team Leader

Terence Kong

2828 5919

Deputy Environmental Team Leaders

Heidi Yu

2828 5704

Ken Wong

2828 5817

Independent Environmental Checker (IEC)

(AECOM Asia Company Limited)

Independent Environmental Checker

Roy Man

3922 9376

 

Deputy Independent Environmental Checker

Jackel Law

3922 9141

 

 

Reclamation Works:

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3206

Main Reclamation Works (ZHEC-CCCC-CDC Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Alan Mong

3763 1352 

 

Environmental Officer

Zhang Bin Wang

3763 1525

 

Airfield Works:

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3302

Eastern Vehicular Tunnel Advance Works

(China Road and Bridge Corporation)

Project Manager

Dickey Yau

5699 4503

Environmental Officer

Dennis Ho

5645 0563

Contract 3305

Airfield Ground Lighting System

(ADB Safegate Hong Kong Limited)

Project Manager

Allam Al-Turk

2944 9725

Environmental Officer

Ivan Ting

9222 9490

Contract 3306

Observation Facility Control System Supporting Interim 2RS and 3RS

(Chinney Alliance Engineering Limited)

Project Director

Dennis Yam

9551 9920

Environmental Officer

Richard Liu

9216 8990

Contract 3307

Fire Training Facility

(Paul Y. Construction Company Limited)

Project Manager

Ken Tang

9640 5397

Environmental Officer

 

 

Ferddy Leung

5585 6746

Contract 3308

Foreign Object Debris Detection System

(DAS Aviation Services Group)

Project Manager

Jeffrey Yau

9873 7422

Contract 3310

North Runway Modification Works

(China State Construction Engineering (Hong Kong) Ltd.)

Project Manager

Kingsley Chiang

9424 8437

Environmental Officer

Federick Wong

9842 2703

Third Runway Concourse:

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3402 New Integrated Airport Centres Enabling Works

(Wing Hing Construction Co., Ltd.)

Project Manager

Wyman Lau

6112 9753

Health Safety Environmental Manager

Mike Leung

6625 2550

Contract 3403 New Integrated Airport Centres Building and Civil Works

(Sun Fook Kong Construction Limited)

Project Manager

Alice Leung

9220 3162

Environmental Officer

Ray Cheung

9785 1566

Contract 3404

Integrated Airport Control System

(Shun Hing Systems Integration Co., Ltd.)

Project Manager

Andy Ng

9102 2739

Safety Officer

Keith Chau

9620 7515

Contract 3405 Third Runway Concourse Foundation and Substructure Works

(China Road and Bridge Corporation – Bachy Soletanche Group Limited – LT Sambo Co., Ltd. Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Francis Choi

9423 3469

Environmental Officer

Jacky Lai

9028 8975

Contract 3408

Third Runway Concourse and Apron Works

(Beijing Urban Construction Group Company Limited and Chevalier (Construction) Company Limited Joint Venture)

Assistant Project Manager

Qian Zhang

5377 7976

Environmental Officer

Malcolm Leung

7073 7559

 

Terminal 2 (T2) Expansion:

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3508 Terminal 2 Expansion Works

(Gammon Engineering & Construction Company Limited)

Project Director

Richard Ellis

6201 5637

Environmental Officer

Fanny Law

6184 4650

 

Automated People Mover (APM) and Baggage Handling System (BHS):

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3601 New Automated People Mover System (TRC Line)

(CRRC Puzhen Bombardier Transportation Systems Limited and CRRC Nanjing Puzhen Co., Ltd. Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Hongdan Wei

158 6180 9450

Environmental Officer

 

H Y Yue

 

 

 

 

9185 8186

Contract 3602 Existing APM System Modification Works

(Niigata Transys Co., Ltd.)

Project Manager

Kunihiro Tatecho

9755 0351

Environmental Officer

Y M Tong   

5316 9801

Contract 3603 3RS Baggage Handling System (VISH Consortium)

Project Manager

K C Ho

9272 9626

Environmental Officer

Richard Ng

9802 9577

 

Construction Support (Facilities):

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3721 Construction Support Infrastructure Works

(China State Construction Engineering (Hong Kong) Ltd.)

Site Agent

Thomas Lui

9011 5340

Environmental Officer

John Mak

6273 8703

Contract 3728 Minor Site Works

(Shun Yuen Construction Company Limited)

Contract Manager

C K Liu

9194 8739

Environmental Officer

Dan Leung

6856 5899

Contract 3733 Emergency Repair Service

(Wing Hing Construction Co., Ltd.)

 

Project Manager

Michael Kan

9206 0550

Safety Health Environmental Manager

Mike Leung

6625 2550  

 

Airport Support Infrastructure:

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3801 APM and BHS Tunnels on Existing Airport Island

(China State Construction Engineering (Hong Kong) Ltd.)

Project Manager

Kingsley Chiang

9424 8437

Environmental Officer 

Eunice Kwok

9243 1331

Contract 3802 APM and BHS Tunnels and Related Works

(Gammon Construction Limited)

Project Director

John Adams

6111 6989

Environmental Officer

Phoebe Ng

9869 1105

Contract 3804 East and Landside Fire Stations

(Beijing Urban Construction Group Company

Limited -

Beijing Urban Construction International Company Limited - Kin Shing

(Leung's)

General Contractors Ltd

Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Mr. Zhang Xianda

4661 6818

Environmental Officer

Ms. Kimberly Wong

5542 1669

 

 

 

 


 

Construction Support (Services / Licences):

Party

Position

Name

Telephone

Contract 3901A Concrete Batching Facility

(K. Wah Concrete Company Limited)

Project Manager

Benedict Wong

9553 2806

Environmental Officer

C P Fung

9874 2872

Contract 3901B Concrete Batching Facility

(Gammon Construction Limited)

General Manager

Gabriel Chan

2435 3260

Environmental Officer

Rex Wong

2695 6319

Contract 3908 Quay Management Services

(Gitanes – Crown Asia Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Mr. Ian Li

9750 6438

Environmental Officer

Mr. Tang Kai Fun

9406 3526

Contract 3913 Asphalt Batching Plant

(SPR Joint Venture)

Project Manager

Xie Yi Sheng

6580 6005

Environmental Officer

Kenneth Chan

9300 2182

1.4        Contact information for the Project

The contact information for the Project is provided in Table 1.2. The public can contact us through the following channels if they have any queries and comments on the environmental monitoring data and project related information.

Table 1.2: Contact Information of the Project

Channels

Contact Information

Hotline

3908 0354

Email

env@3rsproject.com

Fax

3747 6050

Postal Address

Airport Authority Hong Kong

HKIA Tower

1 Sky Plaza Road

Hong Kong International Airport

Lantau

Hong Kong

Attn: Environmental Team Leader Mr Terence Kong

c/o Mr Lawrence Tsui (TRD)

1.5        Summary of Construction Works

The key activities of the Project carried out in the reporting period included reclamation works and land-based works. Works in the reclamation areas included seawall construction, filling and land-based ground improvement works, together with runway, taxiways, concourse and associated works. Land-based works on existing airport island involved mainly airfield works, Terminal 2 expansion works, modification and tunnel work for APM and BHS systems, and preparation work for utilities, with activities include road and drainage works, cable ducting, demolition, piling, and excavation works. The locations of the key construction activities are presented in Figure 1.1.

1.6        Summary of EM&A Programme Requirements

The status for all environmental aspects are presented in Table 1.3. The EM&A requirements remained unchanged during the reporting period.

 

 

 

Table 1.3: Summary of Status for All Environmental Aspects under the Updated EM&A Manual

Parameters

EM&A Requirements

Status

Air Quality

 

 

Baseline Monitoring

At least 14 consecutive days before commencement of construction work

The baseline air quality monitoring result has been reported in Baseline Monitoring Report and submitted to EPD under EP Condition 3.4.

Impact Monitoring

At least 3 times every 6 days

On-going

Noise

 

 

Baseline Monitoring

Daily for a period of at least two weeks prior to the commencement of construction works

The baseline noise monitoring result has been reported in Baseline Monitoring Report and submitted to EPD under EP Condition 3.4.

Impact Monitoring

Weekly

On-going

Water Quality

 

 

General Baseline Water Quality Monitoring for reclamation, water jetting and field joint works

Three days per week, at mid-flood and mid-ebb tides, for at least four weeks prior to the commencement of marine works.

The baseline water quality monitoring result has been reported in Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report and submitted to EPD under EP Condition 3.4.

General Impact Water Quality Monitoring for reclamation, water jetting and field joint works

Three days per week, at mid-flood and mid-ebb tides.

On-going for reclamation works. General impact water quality monitoring for water jetting works was completed on 23 May 2017.

Initial Intensive Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) Water Quality Monitoring

At least four weeks

The Initial Intensive DCM Monitoring Report was submitted and approved by EPD in accordance with the Detailed Plan on DCM.

Regular DCM Water Quality Monitoring

Three times per week until completion of DCM works.

Due to the completion of all marine-based DCM works within April 2022, regular DCM monitoring was ceased at all monitoring stations starting from 28 April 2022 and would be resumed if there are marine-based DCM works in the coming future.

Sewerage and Sewage Treatment

Methodology for carrying out annual sewage flow monitoring for concerned gravity sewer

Methodology to be prepared and submitted to EPD one year before the scheduled commencement of operation of the proposed third runway.

The proposed methodology of the annual sewage flow monitoring was approved by EPD. The annual flow monitoring was started from June 2021 and completed in 2022.

Details of the routine H2S monitoring system for the sewerage system of 3RS

Details to be prepared and submitted to EPD at least one year before commencement of the operation of 3RS.

The details of the routineH2S monitoring system will be prepared and submitted to EPD at least one year before commencement of operation of 3RS.

Waste Management

 

 

Waste Monitoring

At least weekly

On-going

Land Contamination

 

 

Supplementary Contamination Assessment Plan (CAP)

At least 3 months before commencement of any soil remediation works.

The Supplementary CAP was submitted and approved by EPD under EP condition 2.20.

Contamination Assessment Report (CAR) for Golf Course

CAR to be submitted for golf course

The CAR for Golf Course was submitted and accepted by EPD.

CAR for Terminal 2 Emergency Power Supply System

CAR to be submitted for Terminal 2 Emergency Power Supply Systems

 

The CARs for Terminal 2 Emergency Power Supply Systems were submitted and accepted by EPD.

Terrestrial Ecology

 

 

Pre-construction Egretry Survey Plan

Once per month in the breeding season between April and July, prior to the commencement of HDD drilling works.

The Egretry Survey Plan was submitted and approved by EPD under EP Condition 2.14.

Ecological Monitoring

Monthly monitoring during the HDD construction works period from August to March.

The terrestrial ecological monitoring at Sheung Sha Chau was completed in January 2019.

Marine Ecology

 

 

Pre-Construction Phase Coral Dive Survey

Prior to marine construction works

The Coral Translocation Plan was submitted and approved by EPD under EP Condition 2.12.

Coral Translocation

-

The coral translocation was completed on 5 January 2017.

Post-translocation Monitoring

As per an enhanced monitoring programme based on the Coral Translocation Plan

The post-translocation monitoring programme according to the Coral Translocation Plan was completed in April 2018.

Chinese White Dolphins (CWD)

 

Baseline Monitoring

6 months of baseline surveys before the commencement of land formation related construction works.

Vessel line transect surveys: Two full surveys per month;

Land-based theodolite tracking surveys: Two days per month at the Sha Chau station and two days per month at the Lung Kwu Chau station; and

Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM): For the whole duration of baseline period.

Baseline CWD results were reported in the CWD Baseline Monitoring Report and submitted to EPD in accordance with EP Condition 3.4.

Impact Monitoring

Vessel line transect surveys: Two full surveys per month;

Land-based theodolite tracking surveys: One day per month at the Sha Chau station and one day per month at the Lung Kwu Chau station; and

PAM: For the whole duration for land formation related construction works.

On-going

 

 

 

 

 

 

Landscape and Visual

 

 

Landscape and Visual Plan

At least 3 months before the commencement of construction works on the formed land of the Project.

The Landscape & Visual Plan was submitted and approved by EPD under EP Condition 2.18

Baseline Monitoring

One-off survey within the Project site boundary prior to commencement of any construction works

The baseline landscape & visual monitoring result has been reported in Baseline Monitoring Report and submitted to EPD under EP Condition 3.4.

Impact Monitoring

Weekly

On-going

Environmental Auditing

 

Regular site inspection

Weekly

On-going

Marine Mammal Watching Plan (MMWP) implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

Dolphin Exclusion Zone (DEZ) Plan implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

SkyPier High Speed Ferries (HSF) implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

Construction and Associated Vessels implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

Silt Curtain Deployment Plan implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

Spill Response Plan implementation measures

Monitor and check

On-going

Complaint Hotline and Email Channel

Construction phase

On-going

Environmental Log Book

Construction phase

On-going

Taking into account the construction works in the reporting period, impact monitoring of air quality, noise, water quality, waste management, landscape & visual, and CWD were carried out in the reporting period.

The EM&A programme also involved weekly site inspections and related auditing conducted by ET for the checking of implementation of required environmental mitigation measures recommended in the approved EIA Report. To promote the environmental awareness and enhance the environmental performance of the contractors, environmental trainings and regular environmental management meetings were conducted during the reporting period which are summarised as below:

    Two skipper training sessions provided by ET; and

   Fifty-three environmental management meetings for EM&A review with works contracts.

The EM&A programme has been following the recommendations presented in the approved EIA Report and the Manual. A summary of implementation status of the environmental mitigation measures for the construction phase of the Project during the reporting period is provided in Appendix B.

According to Condition 2.6 of EP, AAHK has advanced the preparation works for the designation of the North Lantau Marine Park as recommended in the approved EIA Report.  Draft map of the proposed North Lantau Marine Park was gazetted by the Government on 3 March 2023 for 60-day public inspection.

2        Environmental Monitoring and Auditing

2.1        Air Quality Monitoring

Impact 1-hour Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) monitoring was conducted three times every six days at two representative monitoring stations during the reporting period. The locations of monitoring stations are described in Table 2.1 and presented in Figure 2.1.

2.1.1         Action and Limit Levels

The Action and Limit Levels of the air quality monitoring stipulated in the EM&A programme for triggering the relevant investigation and follow-up procedures under the programme are provided in Table 2.1 for reference.

Table 2.1: Impact Air Quality Monitoring Stations

Monitoring Station

Location

Action Level (mg/m3)

Limit Level (mg/m3)

AR1A

Man Tung Road Park

306

500

AR2

Village House at Tin Sum

298

2.1.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

The air quality monitoring results in the reporting period are summarised in Table 2.2 and the graphical plot is presented in Appendix C.

Table 2.2: Percentage of Air Quality Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels

 

AR1A

AR2

Jan 2023

100%

100%

Feb 2023

100%

100%

Mar 2023

100%

100%

Overall

100%

100%

Note: The percentages are calculated by dividing the number of monitoring results within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels by the total number of monitoring results.

All monitoring results were within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels at all monitoring stations in the reporting period.

General meteorological conditions in the last month of the previous quarter and this reporting period were recorded and summarised in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3: General Meteorological Condition during Impact Air Quality Monitoring

 

Weather

Dominant Wind Direction

Dec 2022

Sunny to Cloudy

Northwest to Northeast

Jan 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

Northwest to Northeast

Feb 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

Northwest to Northeast

Mar 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

Northwest to Southeast

2.1.3          Conclusion

No dust emission source was observed at the monitoring stations during the monitoring sessions. As the sensitive receivers were far away from the construction activities, with the implementation of dust control measures, there was no adverse impact at the sensitive receivers attributable to the works of the Project.

2.2        Noise Monitoring

Impact noise monitoring was conducted at four representative monitoring stations once per week during 0700 and 1900 in the reporting period. The locations of monitoring stations are described in Table 2.4 and presented in Figure 2.1.

2.2.1         Action and Limit Levels

The Action and Limit Levels of the noise monitoring stipulated in the EM&A programme for triggering the relevant investigation and follow-up procedures under the programme are provided in Table 2.4 for reference.

Table 2.4: Impact Noise Monitoring Stations

Monitoring Station

Location

Action Level

Limit Level

NM1A

Man Tung Road Park

When one documented complaint is received from any one of the sensitive receivers

75 dB(A)

NM4

Ching Chung Hau Po Woon Primary School

65dB(A) / 70 dB(A) (i)

NM5

Village House in Tin Sum

75 dB(A)

NM6

House No. 1, Sha Lo Wan

75 dB(A)

Note:

 (i) The Limit Level for NM4 is reduced to 70dB(A) for being an educational institution. During school examination period, the Limit Level is further reduced to 65dB(A).

2.2.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

The noise monitoring results in the reporting period are summarised in Table 2.5 and the graphical plot is presented in Appendix C.

Table 2.5: Percentage of Noise Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels  

 

NM1A

NM4

NM5

NM6

Jan 2023

100%

100%

100%

100%

Feb 2023

100%

100%

100%

100%

Mar 2023

100%

100%

100%

100%

Overall

100%

100%

100%

100%

Note: The percentages are calculated by dividing the number of monitoring results within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels by the total number of monitoring results.

No complaint were received from any sensitive receiver that triggered the Action Level.

General meteorological conditions in the last month of the previous quarter and this reporting period were recorded and summarised in Table 2.6.

 

Table 2.6: General Meteorological Condition during Impact Noise Monitoring

 

Weather

Dec 2022

Sunny to Cloudy

Jan 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

Feb 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

Mar 2023

Sunny to Cloudy

2.2.3         Conclusion

Major sources of noise dominating the monitoring stations observed during the construction noise impact monitoring were traffic noise near NM1A, school activities near NM4, and aircraft noise near NM6. As the sensitive receivers were far away from the construction activities, with the implementation of noise control measures, there was no adverse impact at the sensitive receivers attributable to the works of the Project.

2.3        Water Quality Monitoring

During the reporting period, water quality monitoring was conducted three days per week, at mid-flood and mid-ebb tides. Water quality monitoring was undertaken at a total of 14 water quality monitoring stations, comprising 6 impact (IM) stations, 5 sensitive receiver (SR) stations, and 3 control (C) stations in the vicinity of the water quality sensitive receivers around the existing airport island in accordance with the Manual.

The purpose of water quality monitoring at the IM stations is to promptly capture any potential water quality impacts from the Project before the impacts could become apparent at sensitive receivers (represented by the SR stations). Table 2.7 describes the details of the monitoring stations. Figure 2.2 shows the locations of the monitoring stations.

Table 2.7: Monitoring Locations and Parameters for Impact Water Quality Monitoring

Monitoring Station

Description

Coordinates

Parameters

 

 

Easting

Northing

 

C1

Control Station

804247

815620

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

C2

Control Station

806945

825682

C3(2)

Control Station

817803

822109

IM1(4)

Impact Station

806458

818351

IM2(4)

Impact Station

806236

819183

IM7(4)

Impact Station

806835

821349

IM10(4)

Impact Station

809838

822240

IM11(4)

Impact Station

810545

821501

IM12(4)

Impact Station

811519

821162

SR1A(1)

Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) Seawater Intake for cooling

812660

819977

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

SR2

Planned marine park / hard corals at The Brothers / Tai Mo To

814166

821463

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

SR3

Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park / fishing and spawning grounds in North Lantau

807571

822147

General Parameters

DO, pH, Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, SS

 

SR4A

Sha Lo Wan

807810

817189

SR8(3)

Seawater Intake for cooling at Hong Kong International Airport (East)

811623

820390

Notes:

(1)    With the operation of HKBCF, water quality monitoring at SR1A station was commenced on 25 October 2018. To better reflect the water quality in the immediate vicinity of the intake, the monitoring location of SR1A has been shifted closer to the intake starting from 5 January 2019.

(2)    According to the Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report, C3 station is not adequately representative as a control station of impact/ SR stations during the flood tide. The control reference has been changed from C3 to SR2 from 1 September 2016 onwards.

(3)    The monitoring location for SR8 is subject to further changes due to silt curtain arrangements and the progressive relocation of this seawater intake.

(4)    With the seawall completion and removal of enhanced open sea silt curtains, these monitoring stations were relocated back to their original locations. For IM2, there was minor adjustment of the monitoring location.

2.3.1         Action and Limit Levels

The Action and Limit Levels for general water quality monitoring stipulated in the EM&A programme for triggering the relevant investigation and follow-up procedures under the programme are presented in Table 2.8. The control and IM stations during flood tide and ebb tide for general water quality monitoring are presented in Table 2.9.

Table 2.8: Action and Limit Levels for General Water Quality Monitoring

Parameters

Action Level (AL)

Limit Level (LL)

Action and Limit Levels for general water quality monitoring

(excluding SR1A & SR8)

General Water Quality Monitoring

DO in mg/l (Surface, Middle & Bottom)

Surface and Middle

4.5mg/l

Surface and Middle

4.1mg/l

Bottom

3.4mg/l

Bottom

2.7mg/l

Suspended Solids (SS) in mg/l

23

or 120% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

37

or 130% of upstream control station at the same tide of the same day, whichever is higher

Turbidity in NTU

22.6

36.1

Action and Limit Levels SR1A

 

 

 

SS (mg/l))

33

 

42

 

Action and Limit Levels SR8

 

 

 

 

SS (mg/l)

52

 

60

 

Notes:

1. For DO measurement, Action or Limit Level is triggered when monitoring result is lower than the limits.

2. For parameters other than DO, Action or Limit Level of water quality results is triggered when monitoring results is higher than the limits.

3. Depth-averaged results are used unless specified otherwise.

Table 2.9: The Control and Impact Stations during Flood Tide and Ebb Tide for General Water Quality Monitoring

Control Station

Impact Stations

Flood Tide

 

C1

IM1, IM2, IM7, SR3

SR21

IM7, IM10, IM11, IM12, SR1A, SR3, SR4A, SR8

Ebb Tide

 

C1

SR4A

C2

IM1, IM2, IM7, IM10, IM11, IM12, SR1A, SR2, SR3, SR8

Notes:

1.  As per findings of Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Report, the control reference has been changed from C3 to SR2 from 1 Sep 2016 onwards.

2.3.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

The summary or results within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels in the reporting period are presented in Table 2.10. The weather and sea conditions in the last month of the previous quarter and this reporting period were recorded and summarised in Table 2.11.

 

Notes:

(1) The percentages are calculated by dividing the number of depth-averaged results complying with their corresponding Action and Limit Levels by the total number of depth-averaged results.

(2) The number in the bracket under the percentage represents the total number of depth-averaged results complying with their corresponding Action and Limit Levels over the total number of depth-averaged results.

Table 2.10: Percentage of Water Quality Monitoring Results within Action and Limit Levels

General Water Quality Monitoring

DO

(Surface and Middle)

DO

(Bottom)

SS

Turbidity

Jan 2023

100%

(221/221)

100%

(221/221)

100%

(273/273)

100%

(221/221)

Feb 2023

100%

(204/204)

100%

(204/204)

99.6%

(251/252)

100%

(204/204)

Mar 2023

100%

(221/221)

100%

(221/221)

99.6%

(272/273)

100%

(221/221)

Overall

100%

100%

99.7%

100%

Notes:

(1) The percentages are calculated by dividing the number of depth-averaged results complying with their corresponding Action and Limit Levels by the total number of depth-averaged results.

(2) The number in the bracket under the percentage represents the total number of depth-averaged results complying with their corresponding Action and Limit Levels over the total number of depth-averaged results.

Table 2.11: General Weather Condition and Sea Condition during Impact Water Quality Monitoring

 

Weather

Sea Condition

Dec 2022

Sunny to Rainy

Calm to Rough

Jan 2023

Fine to Rainy

Calm to Rough

Feb 2023

Sunny to Rainy

Calm to Rough

Mar 2023

Sunny to Rainy

Calm to Rough

The monitoring results for all parameters, except suspended solid (SS), obtained during the reporting period were within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels stipulated in the EM&A programme. The detailed monitoring results are presented in Appendix C. Relevant investigation and follow-up actions will be conducted according to the EM&A programme if the corresponding Action and Limit Levels are triggered.

For SS, two testing results in February and March triggered the corresponding Action Level during the reporting period, and two investigations were conducted accordingly. Summaries of results triggering Action Levels for SS are presented in Table 2.12.

Details of the investigation findings were presented in Construction Phase Monthly EM&A Report No. 86 and 87, which concluded that results triggering the Action Levels were not related to the Project.


 

Table 2.12: Summary of SS Compliance Status (Mid-Flood Tide)

IM1

IM2

IM7

IM10

IM11

IM12

SR1A

SR3

SR4A

SR8

21/2/2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11/3/2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No. of result triggering Action or Limit Level

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Note: The monitoring results compiled with their corresponding Action or Limit Levels are presented in Appendix C.

Legend:

 

Result within corresponding Action and Limit Levels

 

Result triggered the Action Level at monitoring station located upstream of the Project based on dominant tidal flow

D

Result triggered the Action Level at monitoring station located downstream of the Project based on dominant tidal flow

 

Upstream station with respect to the Project during the respective tide based on dominant tidal flow

 

Downstream station with respect to the Project during the respective tide based on dominant tidal flow

2.3.3         Conclusion

During the reporting period, it is noted that all the monitoring results were within their corresponding Action and Limit Levels except two testing results in February and March triggered the corresponding Action Level of SS, and investigations were conducted accordingly. Based on the findings presented in Construction Phase Monthly EM&A Report No. 86 and 87, the cases that triggered the corresponding Action Level were not related to the Project. Hence, the Project did not introduce adverse impact to all water quality sensitive receivers. All required actions under the Event and Action Plan were followed.

Nevertheless, the non-project related trigger was attended to and initiated corresponding action and measures. As part of the EM&A programme, the construction methods and mitigation measures for water quality will continue to be monitored and opportunities for further enhancement will continue to be explored and implemented where possible, to strive for better protection of water quality and the marine environment.

In the meantime, the contractors were reminded to implement and maintain all mitigation measures during weekly site inspections and regular environmental management meetings. These include maintaining mitigation measures properly for reclamation works including filling, seawall construction and ground improvement works as recommended in the Manual.

2.4        Waste Monitoring

In accordance with the Manual, waste generated from construction activities was audited once per week to determine if wastes were being managed in accordance with the Waste Management Plan (WMP) prepared for the Project, contract-specific WMP, and any statutory and contractual requirements. All aspects of waste management including waste generation, storage, transportation, and disposal were assessed during the audits.

2.4.1         Action and Limit Levels

The Action and Limit Levels of the construction waste are provided in Table 2.13.

Table 2.13: Action and Limit Levels for Construction Waste

Monitoring Stations

Action Level

Limit Level

Construction Area

When one valid documented complaint is received

Non-compliance of the WMP, contract-specific WMPs, any statutory and contractual requirements

2.4.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

Weekly monitoring of the Project construction works was carried out by the ET in the reporting period to check and monitor the implementation of proper waste management practices.

Recommendations made by the ET included provision and maintenance of proper chemical waste storage area, as well as handling, segregation, and regular disposal of general refuse. The contractors had taken actions to implement the recommended measures. Waste management audits were carried out by ET according to the requirement of the Waste Management Plan, Updated EM&A Manual and the implementation schedule of the waste management mitigation measures in Appendix B.

Based on updated contractors’ information, summary of construction waste generated in the reporting period is presented in Table 2.14. ET and IEC carried out site audits regularly and reviewed the trip ticket system.

The contractors established the recycling strategy for C&D materials with proper planning and design to maximize recycling and reuse. Dedicated recyclers were employed for different kinds of recyclable materials by the contractors. Dedicated areas for sorting of materials are established on site. Recyclable materials such as steel bar, metal strip, aluminium, paper and plastic are sorted on-site and transported off-site for recycling during this reporting period.

Table 2.14: Construction Waste Statistics   

 

C&D(1) Material Stockpiled for Reuse or Recycle

(m3)

C&D Material Reused in the Project (m3)

C&D Material Reused in other Projects (m3)

C&D Material Transferred to Public Fill(2)

(m3)

Chemical Waste

(kg)

Chemical Waste

(l)

General Refuse (tonne)

Jan 2023

1,051

281

3,737

5,066

1,500

2,600

2,187

Feb 2023

623

0

2,225

7,639

0

0

2,833

Mar 2023

1,549

208

1,486

11,641

0

2,400

3,385

Total

      3,223

489

7,448

24,346

1,500

5,000

8,405

Notes:

1.      C&D refers to Construction and Demolition.

2.      C&D materials not suitable for reuse on-site, including asphalt waste and sediment slurry, were transferred to public fill during the reporting period.

There were no complaint, non-compliance of the WMP, contract-specific WMPs, statutory and contractual requirements that triggered Action and Limit Levels in this reporting period.

2.4.3         Marine Sediment Management

Marine sediment is managed according to the EIA Report, Updated EM&A Manual and Waste Management Plan and the proposal of Further Development on Treatment Level / Details and the Reuse Mode for Marine Sediment (hereinafter referred to as “Further Development Proposal”) of the Project. The sampling process, storage conditions of the excavated marine sediment, treatment process, final backfilling location as well as associated records were inspected and checked by ET and verified by IEC to ensure they were in compliance with the requirements as stipulated in the Waste Management Plan and Further Development Proposal.

Sampling works and backfilling works for marine sediment generated from the reclaimed land area were conducted during the reporting period. The details of the marine sediment sampling, treatment and backfilling can be referred to Annual EM&A Reports No.6.

2.5        Chinese White Dolphin Monitoring

CWD monitoring was conducted by vessel line transect survey at a frequency of two full surveys per month, supplemented by land-based theodolite tracking survey and PAM. The frequency of the land-based theodolite tracking survey during the construction phase was one day per month at both Sha Chau (SC) and Lung Kwu Chau (LKC) stations, as stipulated in the Manual. The vessel survey transects followed the transect lines proposed in the Manual and are consistent with those used in the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) long-term CWD monitoring programme. The transect locations of CWD monitoring by vessel line transect survey are shown in Figure 2.3, whilst the land-based theodolite tracking survey stations are described in Table 2.15 and depicted in Figure 2.4. The location of the PAM device is shown in Figure 2.10.

Table 2.15: Land-based Theodolite Tracking Survey Station Details

Stations

Location

Geographical Coordinates

Station Height (m)

Approximate Tracking Distance (km)

D

Sha Chau (SC)

22° 20’ 43.5” N

113° 53’ 24.66” E

45.66

2

E

Lung Kwu Chau (LKC)

22° 22’ 44.83” N

113° 53’ 0.2” E

70.40

3

2.5.1         Action and Limit Levels

The Action Level and Limit Level for CWD monitoring were formulated by an action response approach using the running quarterly dolphin encounter rates (STG and ANI) derived from baseline monitoring data, as presented in the CWD Baseline Monitoring Report. The derived values of Action and Limit Levels for CWD monitoring are shown in Table 2.16.

Table 2.16: Derived Values of Action Level and Limit Level for Chinese White Dolphin Monitoring 

 

NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL as a Whole

Action Level

Running quarterly STG < 1.86 & ANI < 9.35

Limit Level

Two consecutive running quarterly (3-month) STG < 1.86 & ANI < 9.35

2.5.2         Summary of Monitoring Results

2.5.2.1           Vessel Line Transect Survey

Survey Effort

During the reporting period from January to March 2023, a total of six sets of vessel line transect survey covering all transects in Northeast Lantau (NEL), Northwest Lantau (NWL), Airport West (AW), West Lantau (WL) and Southwest Lantau (SWL) survey areas were conducted at a frequency of twice per month, in each survey area.

A total of around 1,341 km of survey effort was collected from these surveys, with around 97.2% of the total survey effort being conducted under favourable weather condition (i.e. Beaufort Sea State 3 or below with favourable visibility). Details of the survey effort data are presented in Appendix C.

CWD Sighting

From January to March 2023, there were a total of 43 sightings of CWD, with 166 dolphins sighted (Table 2.17). All these sightings were recorded during on-effort searches under favourable weather condition.

When breaking down the sightings by survey areas, 13 sightings with a total of 52 dolphins, two sightings with a total of four dolphins, 23 sightings with a total of 99 dolphins, and five sightings with a total of 11 dolphins were recorded in NWL, AW, WL and SWL respectively during the current reporting period. No CWD was sighted in NEL survey area.

Compared with the previous quarter (i.e. October to December 2022), both the total number of CWD sightings and total number of the dolphins increased observably by 34% and 84% respectively. These results were attributed by a notable increase of the dolphin sightings and the number of dolphins in NWL survey area.

Compared with the same quarter of last year (i.e. January to March 2022), there were slight increases in both the total number of sightings and the total number of dolphins by 13% and 8% respectively. Both the number of sightings and number of dolphins had notable increases in NWL while these numbers decreased in WL survey area.

Table 2.17 below shows the comparison of the numbers of sightings and dolphins amongst the current reporting period, last quarter, and the same quarter of last year.

Table 2.17: Summary of Number of CWD Sightings and Number of Dolphins for the Same Quarter Last Year, Previous Quarter, and Current Reporting Period

 

Same Quarter of Last Year

Previous Reporting Period

Current Reporting Period

 

January to March 2022

October to December 2022

January to March 2023

NEL

0 (0) 

0 (0)

0 (0)

NWL

7 (23) 

2 (3)

13 (52)

AW

1 (1) 

0 (0)

2 (4)

WL

26 (117) 

25 (74)

23 (99)

SWL

4 (12)

5 (13)

5 (11)

Total

38 (153)

32 (90)

43 (166)

Note: Values in ( ) represent number of dolphins

The distribution of CWD sightings recorded from January to March 2023 is illustrated in Figure 2.5. In NWL survey area, CWD sightings were mainly recorded at the waters to the west of HKIA and to the north of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, while there were also a few CWD sightings at the waters within and around SCLKCMP. In WL, CWD sightings were scattered over the survey area, with a cluster of CWD sightings observed between Yi O and Peaked Hill. In SWL, CWD sightings were mostly recorded around Fan Lau, with a CWD group observed at the Soko Islands and another group observed at the waters off Shui Hau. No CWD sightings were recorded in NEL survey area during the reporting period. Details of the sighting data are presented in Appendix C.

Figure 2.5: Sightings Distribution of Chinese White Dolphins from January to March 2023

Remarks: (1) Please note that there are 43 pink circles on the map indicating the sighting locations of CWD. Some of them were very close to each other and therefore appear overlapped on this sighting distribution map. (2) Marine park excludes land area and the landward boundary generally follows the high water mark along the coastline.

 Encounter Rate

The dolphin encounter rates for the number of on-effort dolphin sightings per 100 km survey effort (STG) and for the total on-effort number of dolphins per 100 km survey effort (ANI) in the whole survey area (i.e. NEL, NWL, AW, WL and SWL) for January, February and March 2023 are summarised in Table 2.18.

In this reporting period, the monthly STG increased from January to February 2023 (STG: from 1.56 to 4.60), but followed by a slight decrease in March 2023 (STG: from 4.60 to 3.80). The monthly ANI increased greatly from January to March 2023 (ANI: from 4.24 to 17.81). For running quarterly encounter rates, both running quarterly STG and ANI increased from January to March 2023. No Action Level for CWD monitoring was triggered during the reporting period.

Compared with the previous reporting period (i.e. October to December 2022), both the running quarterly STG and ANI increased from December 2022 to March 2023 (STG: from 2.49 to 3.30; ANI from 6.73 to 12.73). While comparing with the same quarter of last year (i.e. January to March 2022), both the running quarterly STGs and ANIs were in similar levels. Encounter rates for these periods are summarised in Table 2.18 and graphical presentation is provided in Appendix C

Table 2.18: Summary of Monthly and Running Quarterly STG and ANI of Chinese White Dolphin for the Same Quarter Last Year, Previous Quarter, and Current Reporting Period

 

Same Quarter of Last Year

Previous Reporting Period

Current Reporting Period

 

Jan 22 

Feb 22 

Mar 22 

Oct 22

Nov 22

Dec 22

Jan 23 

Feb 23 

Mar 23 

Monthly STG

5.28 

1.69 

2.08 

3.46

2.68

1.47

1.56

4.60

3.80

Monthly ANI

20.18 

5.32 

10.86 

10.66

5.59

4.65

4.24

16.56

17.81

Running Quarterly STG

3.09 

2.90 

3.01 

3.11

2.77

2.49

1.92

2.55

3.30

Running Quarterly ANI

11.43 

10.19 

12.12 

11.03

7.67

6.73

4.83

8.52

12.73

Note:    For detailed calculations of encounter rates STG and ANI for the current reporting period, please refer to the Construction Phase Monthly EM&A Report Nos. 85, 86, and 87.

Group Size

Between January and March 2023, the group size of CWD sightings ranged from one to 16 dolphins. The average group size of CWD was 3.86 dolphins per group, which is higher than that of the last quarter (2.81 dolphins per group). The average group size of CWD in this reporting quarter is slightly smaller than that of the same quarter of last year (4.03 dolphins per group for January to March 2022).

In this reporting quarter, the number of CWD sightings with medium group size (i.e. 3-9 dolphins) was slightly more than the CWD sightings with small group size (i.e. 1-2 dolphins). There were two CWD sightings with large group size (i.e. 10 or more dolphins) recorded in this reporting period in NWL and WL survey areas respectively.

There was no apparent difference in the distribution of small-sized dolphin groups and medium-sized dolphin groups in WL survey area. In NWL, the numbers of small-sized dolphin groups and medium-sized dolphin groups in the waters around SCLKCMP and airport west were similar, with a large-sized dolphin group recorded near the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. In SWL, the only medium-sized dolphin group was recorded near Fan Lau. Sighting locations of CWD groups with different group sizes are depicted in Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6: Sighting Locations of Chinese White Dolphins with Different Group Sizes

Remarks: (1) Please note that there are 43 circles on the map indicating the sighting locations of CWD. Some of them were very close to each other and therefore appear overlapped on this sighting distribution map. (2) Marine park excludes land area and the landward boundary generally follows the high water mark along the coastline.

 

Activities and Association with Fishing Boats

From January to March 2023, 16 sightings of CWD were recorded with foraging activities. Amongst them, two sightings were observed associated with operating fishing boats. One of these two sighting was recorded associated with pair trawler in NWL and another sighting was associated with purse seiner in WL survey area.

The number of sightings with foraging recorded in the current reporting period is greater than that in the previous reporting period (i.e. 10 sightings involved foraging activities between October and December 2022). The number of CWD sightings with foraging activities in this reporting period is also greater than that in the same quarter of last year (i.e. 10 sightings between January and March 2022).

The sighting locations of CWDs engaged in different behaviours during the current reporting period are illustrated in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7: Sighting Locations of Chinese White Dolphins Engaged in Different Behaviours

Remarks: Marine park excludes land area and the landward boundary generally follows the high water mark along the coastline.


Mother-calf Pairs

From January to March 2023, nine sightings of CWD were recorded with the presence of mother-and-unspotted juvenile pairs, which is greater than that recorded in the previous reporting quarter (i.e. four sightings between October and December 2022). The number of CWD sightings with the presence of mother-calf pairs is the same as that recorded in the same quarter of last year (i.e. nine sightings between January to March 2022). These nine sightings with the presence of mother-calf pairs recorded during the current reporting period were recorded in NWL and WL survey areas.

The locations of CWD sightings with the presence of mother-calf pairs are shown in Figure 2.8.

 

Figure 2.8: Sighting Locations of Mother-calf Pairs

Remarks: (1) Please note that there are nine circles on the map indicating the sighting locations of Mother-Calf pairs. (2) Marine park excludes land area and the landward boundary generally follows the high water mark along the coastline.

Photo Identification

Between January and March 2023, a total number of 74 different CWD individuals were identified altogether for 135 times. Re-sighting information of CWD individuals provides an initial idea of their range use and apparent connection between different areas of Lantau waters. Amongst these 74 different CWD individuals, 32 animals (i.e. NLMM009, NLMM016, NLMM021, NLMM027, NLMM040, NLMM041, NLMM052, NLMM081, SLMM002, SLMM003, SLMM007, SLMM010, SLMM014, SLMM023, SLMM025, SLMM031, SLMM035, SLMM037, SLMM044, SLMM049, SLMM058, SLMM073, SLMM074, WLMM007, WLMM028, WLMM029, WLMM043, WLMM056, WLMM067, WLMM080, WLMM114 and WLMM181) were sighted for more than once.

Thirteen individuals including NLMM016, NLMM021, NLMM040, NLMM041, SLMM014, SLMM031, SLMM035, SLMM037, WLMM028, WLMM029, WLMM043, WLMM056 and WLMM067 were re-sighted in different survey areas during this reporting period. The most frequently re-sighted individuals in this reporting quarter is SLMM035 which was successfully identified for six times. Both the number of CWD individuals re-sighted more than once and the number of CWD individuals showing cross-area movement were higher than those of the last reporting period from October to December 2022.

A summary of photo identification works is presented in Table 2.19. Representative photos of the 74 identified individuals and figures depicting the sighting locations of the aforementioned 13 individuals re-sighted in different survey areas in this reporting period are presented in Appendix C.

Table 2.19: Summary of Photo Identification

Individual ID

Date of sighting

Sighting Group No.

Area

 

Individual
ID

Date of sighting

Sighting Group No.

Area

NLMM001

20-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

SLMM037

22-Feb-23

10

WL

NLMM009

16-Feb-23

2

NWL

 

 

02-Mar-23

2

WL

 

 

3

NWL

 

 

09-Mar-23

9

SWL

NLMM013

21-Feb-23

1

WL

 

SLMM044

21-Feb-23

4

WL

NLMM015

16-Feb-23

3

NWL

 

 

02-Mar-23

1

WL

NLMM016

16-Feb-23

3

NWL

 

 

 

2

WL

 

01-Mar-23

5

WL

 

SLMM049

01-Mar-23

6

WL

 

07-Mar-23

2

NWL

 

 

02-Mar-23

2

WL

NLMM020

16-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

 

 

3

WL

NLMM021

06-Jan-23

2

NWL

 

SLMM058

21-Feb-23

2

WL

 

01-Mar-23

2

WL

 

 

22-Feb-23

3

WL

NLMM027

16-Feb-23

4

NWL

 

 

01-Mar-23

5

WL

 

22-Feb-23

1

AW

 

 

02-Mar-23

1

WL

 

03-Mar-23

1

NWL

 

 

 

2

WL

NLMM028

06-Jan-23

2

NWL

 

SLMM060

09-Mar-23

1

SWL

NLMM040

09-Jan-23

1

NWL

 

SLMM071

16-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

 

2

NWL

 

SLMM073

22-Feb-23

6

WL

 

16-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

 

01-Mar-23

6

WL

 

01-Mar-23

4

WL

 

SLMM074

22-Feb-23

3

WL

 

03-Mar-23

1

NWL

 

 

01-Mar-23

2

WL

NLMM041

09-Jan-23

1

NWL

 

WLMM001

01-Mar-23

5

WL

 

 

2

NWL

 

WLMM003

02-Mar-23

2

WL

 

16-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

WLMM005

01-Mar-23

5

WL

 

01-Mar-23

4

WL

 

WLMM007

22-Feb-23

6

WL

 

03-Mar-23

1

NWL

 

 

02-Mar-23

2

WL

NLMM052

16-Feb-23

2

NWL

 

 

 

3

WL

 

 

3

NWL

 

WLMM019

09-Jan-23

3

NWL

NLMM055

21-Feb-23

1

WL

 

WLMM027

01-Mar-23

1

AW

NLMM060

16-Feb-23

1

NWL

 

WLMM028

16-Feb-23

1